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lymphatic 15.5

lymphatic system

Lymphatic system has three components: lymphatic capillaries and vessles,immune cellshymph
lymphatic capillaries closed-ended tubes nestled among blood capillary networks.
immune cells a group of tissues and organs
lymph a clear colorless fluid similar to blood plasma but whoses composition varies from place to place in the body.
the lymphatic system has three functions1. absorbs what? Absorb excess interstitial fluid and return it to the blood stream.
the lymphatic system has three functions2. removes what? remove foreign chemicals, cells, and debris from the tissue
the lymphatic system has three functions3. Absorbs what? absorb dietary lipids from the small intestine
lymphatic capillaries converge to form what? larger lymphatic collecting vessels.
Collecting vessels enter into the part of the lymphatic network by lymph nodes
a lymph nodes function is to filter impurities from the lymph and alert immune system to the presence of pathogens.
right lymphatic duct receives lymph from the right arm, right side of the thorax, right side of the head and drains into the right subclavian vein
right lymphatic duct drains into right subclavian vein
thoracic duct the largest lymphstic vessel, receives lymph from both sides of the body below the diaphragm from the left arm, left side of the head and left thorax
thoracic duct empties into left subclavian vein
lymphatic follicles constant features in lymph odes, the tonsils, and the ileum.
T lymphocytes (T cells) T stands for thymus, where they mature
Cytotoxic killer T cell destory target cells. Their cell m embrane holds a coreceptor that can recognize a specif antigen.
CD cluster domain followed by a number for the cells
Helper T cells contain CD4 coreceptor and are called T4 cells. Begin the defensive response against a specific antigen.
Memory T cells arise from cytotoxic T lymphocytes that have prevously destroyed a foreign cell.
Suppressor T cells suppress activation of the immune system. Failure may result in autoimmune diseases
B lymphocytes (B cells) cells mature in bone marrow
B cells activated by helper T cells produce antibodies
immunoglobulins, IG antibodies
activated B cells are called plasma cells
plasma cells secrete large quantities of antibodies that immobilize, neutralize, and prepare the specfic antigen for destruction.
Null cells are large granular lymphocytes that are natural killer cells but lasck the specific surface markers of the T and B lymphocytes
Macrophages develop from monocytes that have igrated from blood. They ingest and destroy debris, bacteria, and other foreign matter (phagocytosis)
Phagocytosis process of ingestion and destruction
spleen highly vascular and spongy organ, larges lymphatic organ
spleen is located where? left upper quadrant of the abdomen below the diaphragm and lateral to the kidney
spleen contains 2 types of tissue white pulp and red pulp
white pulp a part of the immune system that produces T cells, B cells and macrophages
red pulp acts as a reservior for erthrocyctes, platelets, and macrophages that remove old and defective erythrocytes
functions of the spleen phagocytize bacteria, initiate an immune response, phagocytize old, defective erythrocytes, serve as a reservoir
tonsils 2 masses of lymphatic tissue located ast he entrance to the oropharynx
adenoids single mass of lymphoid tissue in the midline at the back of the throat
thymus gland has both endocrine and lymphatic functions
The largest gland is the spleen
cervical nodes are accessible where the neck
the axillary nodes are accessible where axilla
inguinal nodes are accessible where groin
lymphadenitis infections in the lymph nodes causeing them to be swollen and tendor to touch
lymphadenopathy enlarged lymp nodes
lymphadenopathy lymph nodes have been removed
lymphoma malignant neoplasm of the lymphatic organs
hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the presence of abnormal cancerous B cells called Reed-Sternberg cells
Reed-Sternberg cells large cells with two nuclei resembling the eyes of an owl
lymphangiogram radiographic images of lymph vessels and nodes following injection of contrast material
non-Hodgkin lymphomas occur much more frequently that Hodgkin lymphoma
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils and adenoids
splenomegaly enlarged spleen, is not a disease in itself, but result of underlying disorder.
hyperspelnism condition in which the spleen removes blood components at an excessive rate
ruptured spleen common complication from car accidents or other truma when the ebdomen and rib cage are damaged.
lymphedema localized, nonpitting fluid retention caused by a compromised lymphatic system.
Created by: jsymons