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Theory in Nursing

Test #3

Maintenance of normalcy as interpreted by the individual (self-concept, sexuality, social relationships, spirituality, coping) control over one's ADL's and the ability to cope with the course of disease. Goal of Nursing Self-care need of normalcy
Lewin: 3 Stages unfreezing-motivation to create change moving-making actual change refreezing-changes are stabilized Influential factors: culture, family, G&D, tasks, ethnocentrism (powerful people=Hitler) Change Theory
The expectancy that an individual's own behavior cannot determine the outcomes he seeks. Powerlessness
Deciding factor in one's ability to cope effectively. realistic-conscious violation of ethics pseudo-expectations exceed reality neurotic-dreads any form of behavior that may threaten loss of self-esteem Guilt
Determined by beliefs, values, and attitudes *delicate area for RN's to discuss with PT Sexuality
Individual's perception of self-worth; affected by sexuality, guilt, powerlessness Self-esteem Theory
Emotion that pervades all people; a response involving the total person Anxiety Theory
Shock/disbelief (denial)--> allows for the processing Apprehending the loss Attempting to cope Final restitution Engel's stages of loss/grief (similar to Keubler-Ross)
A situation where a valued object is rendered inaccessible to an individual or altered to the point of no value. Loss Theory
You can't become part of an environment with strangers and have self-actualization Maslow's: Self-actualization Theory
Close relationship with people--> ability to love, respect, and value others while receiving love, respect, and value from others Interdependence Theory
Primary-the way of life assumed by the person (married woman) Secondary-influences behavior in society (boy's mother, wife) Tertiary-roles freely chosen (PTA president, patient) 3 Roles: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
1. Need for social integrity 2. Need to know who one is in relation to others. Needs related to a role
Physical-"I feel..." Personal-"I would like to be like..."; "I believe in..." Physical vs. Personal self
Composite of beliefs and feelings that one holds about one's self at a given time; formed from perceptions of others reactions and behaviors Self-concept
The process of positively responding to environmental changes that decrease necessary responses to cope with the stimuli and increase sensitivity to respond to other stimuli Adaptation
To deal with the person, not as a biological organism but as a holistic system Goal of Nursing
Clarity, Simplicity, Generality, Empirical Precision, Derivable Consequences Components of a Theory
Increases understanding through relationship statements that specify the cause between independent and dependent variables. Requires concepts, definitions, and relationship statements Causal Process
Interrelated logical system of concepts, definitions, and relationship statements arranged in hierarchical order Axiomatic Form
An inductive approach that seeks patterns in research findings Set of Laws
Combines induction and deduction. This is how we normally think. Retroduction
Form of logical reasoning that progresses from general to specific Deduction
A form of reasoning that moves from the specific to the general ex. set of laws Induction
Induction, Deduction, Retroduction, Set of laws, Axiomatic form, Causal process Development of a Theory
Narrower focus than grand, but a broader focus than micro Middle Range Theory
Broad and complex Grand Theory
Sets the meaning of nursing phenomena through analysis, reasoning, and logical argument Philosophy
Indicated when the theory contains a large number of theoretical statements Ordering
Offer a reasonable explanation of why the variables in the theory may be connected, that is the plausibility of the theory Linkages
Application of systematic methods to obtain reliable and valid knowledge about empirical reality Research
A statement that asserts one variable is required for the occurrence of another Necessary Condition
Predicts both occurrence and nonoccurrence of something Probabilistic Statement
Has dependent variables determined by independent variables Deterministic Statement
Believed to cause the occurrence of another concept if they have a causal relationship Causal Statement
Indicates that values of one concept are correlated with that of another (linear, curvilinear=Bell curve) Relational Statements
Establish a topology (link indicating a concept exists) Existence Statements
Theorems or statements arrived from axioms Propositions
Relationship statements that include abstract concepts-concepts that relate mental images of entities not readily observable Axioms and Theorems
Relationship statement to be tested Hypothesis
Differ from laws only in the amount of support generated for the proposed relationship statements. May be on the way to becoming a law. Patterns of events Empirical Generalizations
Statements that describe a relationship in which scientists have so much confidence they consider it an absolute truth. Have overwhelming support. Laws
Describe a relationship between 2 or more concepts Theoretical Statements
Statements supposed to be true without proof or demonstration Assumptions
Statements of meaning of words, phrases, and terms Definitions
Any occurrence or fact that is directly perceptible by the senses Phenomenon
Global units, representing a large concept and their relationship to one another ex. 4 paradigms-man, health, nursing, and environment Summative Concepts
Based on statistical evidence-an average ex. BP readings of 120/80 (not common to find the exact reading, but over years of study,this is the norm) Statistical Concepts
Combination of ideas ex. elderly people are understood as having aged and longevity; to be a mother you must be a female, have sexual relations with a male, and proper organ function. Relational Concepts
Simplest and least complex: Can have zero ex. income, anxiety, disease Associative Concepts
Simplest and least complex: Always exist ex. age Enumerative Concepts
Enumerative, Associative, Relational, Statistical, Summative Types of Concepts
A complex mental formulation of an object, property, or event that is derived from individual perceptual experience. May be abstract or concrete. Also classified as discrete or continuous. Concept
A set of concepts, definitions, and propositions that project a systematic view of phenomena by designing specific interrelationships among concepts for purposes of describing, explaining, and predicting. A degree of uncertainty still exists. Theory
Conceptual diagram that can be used to organize theory. Paradigm shift-inspires people to think differently Paradigm
Frameworks made up of abstract and general ideas and propositions that specify their relationships Conceptual Modles
An idea that explains by using symbolic and physical visualization ex. EKG strip, scans Model
Something known with certainty Fact
An awareness or perception of reality acquired through learning or investigation Knowledge
The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Much harder and requires evidence. Science
The science comprising logic, ethics, anesthetics, metaphysics, and epistemology. Epistemology-words significant to a type of literature Philosophy
Created by: shanhaup