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Sociology I Final

Societies also have various mechanisms to regulate people's behavior. refers to the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance. SOCIAL CONTROL
According to sociologist Robert Merton's theory, people feel tension when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals. The goals may be material po STRAIN
Which of the following perspectives uses the approach of an intertwining nature of power, knowledge, and social control to examine and explain deviance? POSTMODERN
A is a serious crime for which punishment typically ranges from more than a year's imprisonment to death. FELONY
A is a minor crime that typically is punished by less than one year in jail. MISDEMEANOR
The is the major source of information on crimes reported in the United States. UNIFORM CRIME REPORT
crime consists of actions of force or the threat of force against others, including murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. These crimes are probably the most anxiety-provoking of all criminal behavior. VIOLENT
According to sociologist Edwin Sutherland, crime comprises illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs. occupational (white-collar)
Crime refers to illegal acts committed by an organization's employees on behalf of the organization and with its support. CORPORATE
crime is a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit. ORGANIZED
The term refers to illegal or unethical acts involving the use of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it. POLITICAL CRIME
refers to the use of personal judgment by police officers, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice system officials regarding whether and how to proceed in a given situation. DISCRETION
seeks to reduce criminal activity by instilling a fear of punishment in the general public. DETERRENCE
is based on the assumption that offenders who are detained in prison or are executed will be unable to commit additional crimes. INCAPACITATION
is the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on the control over basic resources. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
Sociologist Max Weber's term refers to the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care. LIFE CHANCES
is/are anything valued in a society, ranging from money and property to medical care and education; it is considered to be scarce because of unequal distribution among social categories. RESOURCES
is the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another. This movement can be either upward or downward. SOCIAL MOBILITY
is an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others. It is a closed system in which people are treated as property and have little or no control over their lives. SLAVERY
A is a system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parent's ascribed status. It is a closed system of stratification. CASTE SYSTEM
Both sociologists Karl Marx and Max Weber identified as an important determinant of social inequality and social change. CLASS
According to sociologist Karl Marx, the (capitalist class) consists of those who own the means of production - the land and capital necessary for factories and mines. BOURGEOISIE
is the value of all of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property. WEALTH
Sociologists often use the term to refer to a combined measure that attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education to determine class location. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
is the *economic gain* derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (government aid), and ownership of property. INCOME*economic gain*
poverty exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life. ABSOLUTE
poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living. RELATIVE
is a *category of people* who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes. RACE*category of people*
is a *collection of people* distinguished by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics. ETHNIC GROUP*collection of people*
To sociologists, a is one whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the controlling group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. SUBORDINATE GROUP
From a sociological perspective, is a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups. PREJUDICE
is a *set of attitudes*, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group. RACISM*set of attitudes*
is blatant and may take the form of public statements about the "inferiority" of members of a racial or ethnic group. OVERT RACISM
is often hidden from sight and more difficult to prove. SUBTLE RACISM
A/an is a person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others. SCAPEGOAT
*involves actions* or practices of dominant group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group. DISCRIMINATION*involves actions*
is a process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture. ASSIMILATION
Many groups share elements of the mainstream culture while remaining culturally distinct from both the dominant group and other social and ethnic groups. is the coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and *ethnic groups* within one society. Ethnic Pluralism*Ethnic groups*
refers to the spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or religion. SEGREGATION
occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group *in a particular society.* Internal colonialism *in a particular society.*
Is a killing carried out by a group of vigilantes seeking revenge for an actual or imagined crime by the victim. A LYNCHING
refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males. SEX
At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by , the genitalia used in the reproductive process. primary sex characteristics
At puberty, an increased production of hormones results in the development of , the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual's sex. secondary sex characteristics
Some people may be genetically of one sex but have a gender identity of the other. This is true for a , a person in whom the sex-related structures of the brain that define gender identity are opposite from the physical sex *organs of the person's body.* TRANSSEXUAL*organs of the person's body.*
A *male who lives as a woman*, or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia is referred to as a: TRANSVESTITE*male who lives as a woman*
refer(s) to an individual's preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality). SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Recently, the term was created to describe individuals whose appearance, behavior, or self-identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression. TRANSGENDER
refer(s) to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity." GENDER
refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process. GENDER ROLE
is a person's perception of the self as female or male. Typically established between eighteen months and three years of age, it is a powerful aspect of our self-concept. GENDER IDENTITY
is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body; it also includes an awareness of social conditions in society that contribute to this self-knowledge. BODY CONSCIOUSNESS
is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex. SEXISM
is a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women. MATRIARCHY
refers to the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of life, including food, shelter, and clothing. SUBSISTENCE
consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other. GENDER BIAS
refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and places of work. Gender-segregated
work is most visible in occupations that remain more than 90 percent female (for example, secretary and registered nurse) or more than 90 percent male (for example, carpenter and mechanic). Gender-segregated
work is the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker. Pay equity or comparable worth
is the belief that women and men are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights. FEMINISM
The text defines aging as: the physical, psychological, and social processes associated with growing older.
When people say "Act your age." they are referring to age - a person's age based on date of birth. CHRONOLOGICAL
As they age, men are believed to become more , and women are thought to become more . distinguished; grandmotherly
The age at which one-half the people in a population are younger and the other half are older is referred to as the age of that population. MEDIAN
People born between 1946 and 1964 are commonly referred to as: BABY BOOMER
Referred to as the , the aging of the U.S. population resulted from an increase in life expectancy combined with a decrease in birth rates. GRAYING OF AMERICA
is/are the average number of years that a group of people born in the same year could expect to live. LIFE EXPECTANCY
Based on the death rates in the year of birth, life expectancy shows the average length of life of a/an - a group of people born within a specified period of time. COHORT
One of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population is made up of . This cohort is expected to almost double in size between 2000 and 2025. THOSE AGE 85 AND OVER
As a result of changing population trends, research on aging has grown dramatically in the past 50 years. is the study of aging and older people. GERONTOLOGY
is the study of the nonphysical aspects of aging, including such topics as the societal consequences of an aging population and the personal experience of aging. SOCIAL GERONTOLOGY
is the *number of persons* of each age level within the society. AGE STRUCTURE*number of persons*
is the *number and type of positions* available to a specific age level of people within a society. ROLE STRUCTURE*number and type of positions*
Stereotypes regarding older persons reinforce , which is the prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older persons. AGEISM
are certain benefit payments paid by the government, which include Social Security, Supplemental Social Income (SSI), Medicare, Medicaid, and civil service pensions, which are the primary source of income for many persons over age 65. ENTITLEMENTS
Information technology professionals and U.S. white-collar employees in many other fields have lost their jobs in recent years. refers to the practice of U.S. companies moving certain operations outside of this country. OFF-SHORING
is the social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. THE ECONOMY
are tangible objects that are necessary (such as food, clothing, and shelter) or desired (such as DVDs and electric toothbrushes). GOODS
are intangible activities for which people are willing to pay (such as dry cleaning, a movie, or medical care). SERVICES
refers to the group of people who contribute their physical and intellectual services to the production process in return for wages that they are paid by firms. LABOR
is the wealth (money or property) that is owned or used in business by a person or corporation. CAPITAL
Industrialization brings sweeping changes to the system of production and distribution of goods and services. refers to the processing of raw materials into finished goods. SECONDARY SECTOR PRODUCTION
Steel workers who process metal ore and autoworkers who then convert the ore into automobiles, trucks, and buses are engaged in production. SECONDARY SECTOR
A postindustrial economy is based on production, which is the provision of services rather than goods as a primary source of livelihood for workers and profit for owners and corporate shareholders. TERTIARY SECTOR
includes a wide range of activities, such as fast-food service, transportation, communication, education, real estate, advertising, sports, and entertainment. Tertiary sector production
is an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention. Capitalism
are based on the right of individuals to own income-producing property, such as land, water, mines, and factories, and the right to "buy" people's labor. Capitalist economies
A is a group of employees who join together to bargain with an employer or a group of employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions. LABOR UNION
Under early monopoly capitalism (1890 - 1940), most ownership rapidly shifted to: CORPORATIONS
is the degree to which a relatively small number of corporations control a disproportionately large share of a nation's economic resources. Economic concentration
are large companies that are headquartered in one country but sell and produce goods and services in many countries. Transnational corporations
A/an exists when several companies overwhelmingly control an entire industry. OLIGOPOLY
A/an exists when four or fewer companies supply 50 percent or more of a particular market. SHARED MONOPOLY
is an *economic system* characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized decision making. SOCIALISM*economic system*
The is the rise and fall of economic activity relative to long-term growth in the economy. BUSINESS CYCLE
are high-status, knowledge-based occupations. PROFESSIONS
Is any behavior that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs. Deviance
A is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions. It ranges from minor offense(such as traffic violation) to a major offense(such as murder). CRIME
Refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense (such as cutting school or running away from home) by young people. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
Sociologist Edwin Sutherland's _____ theory states that people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently affiliate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION
Created by: jmpaden01