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MOT 135

Neurological Exam

1. To detect changes & feel sensations. 2. To initiate appropriate responses to changes. 3. To organize information for immediate use & store it for future use.These are examples of what? Primary functions of the nervous system.
Brain & spinal cord are located in which system CNS
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves are located in which system? PNS
Which system contains the autonomic nervous system? PNS
What are nerve cells called? Neurons
Name the 3 main parts of a neuron. Cell body, axon, dendrite
These carry impulses away from the cell body. Axons
These carry impulses toward the cell body. Dendrites
Where is the neculeus housed? The cell body
the peripheral nervous system, the myelin sheath is made up of? Schwann cells
In the CNS what makes up the myelin sheath? Oligodendrocytes
In Schwann cells there are structures called neurolemas, where are they located? Outside of the sheath
Synapse do what? Allow one-way travel of impulses.
Schwann cells are present where? PNS
There are cells that form the BBB – (blood brain barrier) – what are the cells that make this up? Astrocytes
Sensory neuron do what? Transmit impulses from receptors to the CNS
Motor neuron reflexes do what? Transmit impulses from the CNS to the effectors
Effectors are reflexes that do what? performs its characteristic action
___________ transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector. Motor neurons
______ contains one or more synapses. CNS
What do receptors do? detect a change (the stimulus) & generate impulses.
Define Reflex involuntary response to a stimulus
Spinal cord reflexes are defined as? Those that do not depend directly on the brain
Where are Inter neurons found? Entirely within the central nervous system
Mixed nerves are made up of what? Both sensory and motor neurons
What are nerve tracks? A group of functioning related neurons within the cns.
State the two functions of the spinal cord? Transmits impulses to and from the brain, and integrates spinal cord reflexes
The spinal cord is protected from mechanical injury by what bones? Vertebrae
Where is cerebral spinal fluid formed? The choroid plexuses from blood plasma.
Where is cerebral spinal fluid reabsorbed? Arachnoid villi
In the ascending and descending tracks of the spinal cord, what color is the matter? White
Cell bodies of motor neuron are located in what matter? Gray
Cerebral spinal fluid is found within the _________ of the spinal cord structure. central canal
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, how many are designated for the cervical area of the spine? 8
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, how many are designated for the thoracic area of the spine? 12
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, how many are designated for the lumbar area of the spine? 5
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, how many are designated for the sacral area of the spine? 5
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, how many are designated for the coccygeal area of the spine. 1
Each ventricle contains a capillary network called ___________. Choroid Plexus
List the 4 cavities within the brain. 2 lateral ventricles (one on each side of the brain). 3rd ventricle. 4th ventricle
______ is the Cardiac center of the brain and it job is to regulate heart rate; Vasomotor center regulate the blood vessel diameters (BP); Respiratory center to regulate breathing; Reflex center for coughing, sneezing, swallowing & vomiting. Medulla
What are the 4 cavities of the brain that contain the structures that create CSF? Ventricles
The _________ is located anteriorly from the upper part of the medulla and it's job is to regulate respirations. Pons
The location of the __________ extends from spinal cord to pons & anterior to cerebellum. Medulla
The location of the _____ extends from pons to the hypothalamus & encloses the cerebral aqueducts and maintains balance or equilibrium and regulates visual & auditory reflexes. Midbrain
The location of the__________ is separated from medulla & pons by the 4th ventricle & inferior to the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. Responsible for coordination and regulation of muscle tone. Cerebellum
The location of the__________ is superior to the pituitary gland & inferior to the thalamus. It is responsible for hormones, body temp, food intake, integration of ANS function, regulate body rhythms. Hypothalamus
The location of the __________ superior to the hypothalamus & inferior to the cerebrum; 3rd ventricle passes through it. Suppresses unimportant sensations; Groups incoming impulses & integrates them. Thalamus
_____________ is the upper most portion of brain & largest part; responsible for Sensory perception, emotions, willed movement, consciousness & memory. Cerebrum
__________ connects the right and left hemisphere of the brain at the base of the fissure. Corpus Callosum
Gray matter surface of the cerebrum. Under or internal to gray matter is white matter.What is this? Cerebral cortex
What are the groves of cerebrum between gyri called? Fissures or sulci.
Folds of cerebrum are called _________ and they allow for increased number of neurons Convolutions or gyri
Each hemisphere has 4 lobes, what are they called? Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
______ Lobes generate impulses for voluntary movement; Broca’s motor speech area Frontal
__________ Lobes: Interpret cutaneous sensations Taste area and conscious muscle sense Parietal
________ Lobes: Olfactory areas for smell and auditory areas for hearing Temporal
_______ Lobes: Visual areas Occipital
The Gray matter of the brain is also known as ________. Cerebral Cortex
The folds of the brain are called________? Convolutions or gyri
Groves of cerebrum between gyri are called _________? Fissures or sulci
In which lobe of the brain is the brochus motor speech area? Frontal
Neurons are electrically insulated by which structure? Myelin sheath
The connective tissue membrane that covers the brain spinal cord is called? Meninges
The outer layer of the connective tissue that covers the brain is called? Dura Mater
The middle layer of the connective tissue that covers the brain is called? Arachnoid membrane
The inner layer of the connective tissue that covers the brain is called? Pia Mater
The formation of cerebral spinal fluid is it continuous process or intermittent process? Continuous
How many pairs of cranial nerves do we have? 12
Making up the autonomic nervous system is visceral motor they go to three structures, what are they? Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
The ANS has two divisions, what are they and when are they dominant? Sympathetic when stressed, Parasympathetic – when relaxed
Sympathetic is one division of the ANS, it responds to __________. Stress
Algophobia – Fear of pain
Hematophobia – Fear of blood
Latrophobia – Fear of physicians
Olfactophobia – Fear of odor
Pathophobia – Fear of disease
Pharmacophobia – Fear of drugs
Sitophobia – Fear of food
Thanatophobia – Fear of death
Ttoxiohobia – Fear of being poisoned
Traumatophobia – Fear of injury
Acetylcholine is a neuro __________. Transmitter
Cholinesterase is a neuro _________. Inactivator
Norepinephrine is a neuro ___________. Transmitter
MAO is a neuro ____________. Inactivator
Paralysis on one side of the body is called? Hemiparesis
Dysphasia is? Difficulty with speech
Dysphasgia is? Difficulty swallowing
Dizziness is also called? Vertigo
Cephalgia Headache
Diplopia Double vision
What is the Glasgow Coma Scale A neurological assessment
Tia (Transient Ischemic Attack) - Temporary episodes of impaired neurologic function caused by inadequate blood flow to portions of the brain
Epideral hematoma - Collection or mass of blood that forms between the skull & the dura mater
Cerebral concussion - Bruising of the cerebral tissue from a violent back & forth movement of the head (acceleration-deceleration insult). Blunt force trauma
Cerbral contusion - More severe than a concussion bruising of tissues along or just beneath the surface of the brain
Paraplegia - loss of nerve function below the waist & paralysis of the lower trunk & legs
Quadriplegia - loss of nerve function below the cervical region resulting in paralysis of the arms, hands, trunk & legs
Peripheral Neuritis / Neuropathy - Degeneration of a peripheral nerve(s)
Spinal stenosis (Sciatic Nerve Injury) - Trauma, degeneration or rupture of the nucleus puplosus within intervertebral disk L4 through S1. Stenosis – narrowing of spinal canal
Parkinson’s - Slow progressive neurologic disorder with onset of recognizable disturbances “pill rolling” tremor of the thumb & forefinger, muscular rigidity, slowness of movement & postural instability
Huntington’s coria - Hereditary degenerative of the cerebral cortex & basal ganglia – progressive atrophy
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) - Lou Gehrig disease, progressive, destructive motor neuron disease resulting in muscular atrophy
Tic Douloureux (Trigeminal Neuralgia) - Pain in the area of the 5th cranial nerve
Bell Palsey - 7th cranial nerve disorder causing sudden onset of weakness or paralysis of facial muscles
Guillain-Barré - Acute rapidly progressive disease of the spinal nerves. Patients experience numbness & tingling of feet & hands with increasing muscle pain & tenderness. Ascending paralysis move up the body in 24-72 hours.
Meningitis - Inflammation of the meninges
Encephalitis - inflammation of the brain tissue
T/F - Autistic disorder is a syndrome of extreme hyperactivity. False
T/F - Turets disorder multiple motor or one or more motor ticks. True
T/F - Alzheimer’s disease is most frequently cause of dimentia in people over 65. True
T/F - Bipolar disorder patients experience major mood swings from hyperactivity to depressive moments. True
Somatiform disorders are a group of mental disorders in which you first experience physical symptoms with or without an underlyning organic cause? Without – all in their head
T/F - Munchhausen syndrome occurs when a patient stimulates symptoms of illnesses to gain attention. True
T/F - Sleep apnea is when a patient experiences periods of difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep . False
List 5 distinctive personality disorders. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Antisocial Paranoid
Created by: kbcanarr