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Concept Dis. Ch 27

Musculoskeletal System

chemical secreted by nerve endings that activates neurons or muscle cells. acetylcholine
congenital disturbance of endochondral bone formation that causes a type of dwarfism achondroplasia
dense peripheral ring of fibrocartilage making up the intervetebral disk annulus fibrosus
bone necrosis caused by interruption of its blood supply avascular necrosis
formation of bone as, 1st, cartilage model that is then reabsorbed & converted into hone endochondral bone formation
abnormal lateral curvature of spine scoliosis
fibrocartilaginous joint between adjacent vertebral bodies intervertebral disk
direct formation of bone osteoblasts without prior formation of a cartilage model intramembranous bone formation
neoplastic proliferation of leukocytes leukemia
malignant neoplasm of plasma cells multiple melanoma
autoimmune, characterized by abnormal fatigability of muscle & caused by autoantibody damages acetylcholine receptors at myoneural junction myasthenia gravis
procedure for visualizing encounter of dural sac surrounding spinal cord & nerve roots by injection of radiopaque material into dural sac myelogram
soft elastic center of intervetebral disk nucleus pulposus
degeneration of major weight-bearing joint osteoarthritis
congenital disturbance of bone formation characterized by excessively tin/delicate bones that are easily broken osteogenesis imperfecta
impaired calcification of bone in adult caused by vitamin D deficiency which also contributes to bone loss caused by osteoporosis osteomalacia
inflammation of bone osteomyleitis
generalized thinning & demineralization of bone tending to occur in postmenopausal women osteoporosis
tough, fibrous membrane that covers a bone, except for its articular surfaces periosteum
metabolic disease caused by overproduction of uric acid, reduced excretion of uric acid, or combination primary gout
systemic disease primarily affecting synovium w/major effects in joints rheumatoid arthritis
impaired calcification of bone in growing child, caused by vitamin D deficiency leading to bowing of leg bones when weight bearing is attempted rickets
elevated uric acid & clinical manifestations of gout & not caused by metabolic disease, primary gout, but instead by some other disease that raised blood uric acid excessively secondary gout
cytokine that can destroy foreign/abnormal cells tumor necrosis factor
achondroplasia, malformation of fingers and toes, congenital clubfoot, and occurs with equal frequency in both men and women are common congenital abnormalities of the skeletal system
most of the skeletal system is formed through intramembranous bone formation
gout, osteoarthritis, & rheumatoid arthritis are all common types of arthritis
gout most commonly affects middle-aged males
presence of the __ __ is thought to indicate a predisposition towards rheumatoid arthritis antigen HLA-DR4
Osteoarthritis may be considered as a normal part of the aging process
joints, kidneys, & urinary tract are the organs and systems affected by gout
osteomyelitis can lead to ___ of the infected bone necrosis
tumors that begin in other organs are very __ to metastasize to the bone likely
osteoporosis is most likely to occur in postmenopausal women
parathyroid hormone-like drugs, calcitonin, selective estrogen receptor modulators, bisphosphonate drugs are able to offset the effects of osteoporosis by restoring bone density
most commonly occur in the lumbosacral region. disc protrusions
results from a genetic mutation that is linked to the maternal X chromosome muscular dystrophy
results from an autoimmune disorder which can also result in a tumor or benign hyperplasia of thymus
outer layer of compact bone cortex
inner spongy layer arranged in a loose meshed lattice of thin strands trabeculae
spaces between trabeculae consist of fat and blood-forming tissue bone marrow
specialized type of connective tissue bones
composed of a dense connective tissue framework impregnated with calcium phosphate salts
strength and thickness of bones depend on activity
mesoderm transformed into osteoblasts that are converted into bone intramembranous
cartilage model converted into bone endochonral
malformation of fingers and toes, extra digits or polydactyly, born w/multiple fractures, thin and delicate bones easily broken osteogenesis imperfecta
talipes equinavarus is the most common type of congenital clubfoot
shallow acetabulum causes femoral head to be displaced out of socket congenital dislocation of the hip
autoantibody in blood and synovial tissues; produced by B lymphocytes directed against individual’s own gamma globulin rheumatoid factor
an insoluble end-product of purine metabolism uric acid
may form within kidney and lower urinary tract uric acid stones
urate deposits plug tubules and damage kidneys urate nephropathy
bone broken in only two pieces simple fracture
bone shattered into many pieces comminuted fracture
fracture through a diseased area in the bone pathologic fracture
plaster cast closed reduction
internal fixation open reduction
bacteria carried to bone from an infection in body; occurs at ends of bones; mostly in children; in adults: infection may spread into joints hematogenous
hematogenous can lead to spread of infection may strip periosteum from cortex and devitalize bone
in osteomyelitis organisms gain access to bone via direct implantation of bacteria
usually metastatic tumors from prostate, breasts, other organs tumors of the bone
plasma cell neoplasm multiple myeloma
malignant tumor of cartilage chondrosarcoma
malignant tumor of bone-forming cells osteosarcoma
primary malignant bone tumors are unusual
benign cysts and tumors of the bone are encountered occasionally
generalized thinning and demineralization of entire skeletal system osteoporosis
osteoporosis means porous bones
osteoporosis is most common in postmenopausal women because the loss of estrogen accelerates rate of bone reabsorption
treatments for osteoporosis include high calcium diet & estrogen
interference in blood supply to the epiphysis of bones avascular necrosis
at the ends of bone avascular necrosis results in necrosis and degeneration
the disturbance in blood supply, seen in avascular necrosis, is usually from injury
femoral head, tibial tubercle, articular surface of femoral condyle are common sites for avascular necrosis
series of vertebrae joined by intervertebral disks and fibrous ligaments; forms central axis of the body spine
fibrocartilaginous cushions interposed between adjacent vertebral bodies; function as shock absorbers disks of the spine
cervical, lumbar, thoracic & sacral are all curves of vertebral column
cervical and lumbar curves arch forward
thoracic and sacral curves arch backwards
intervertebral disks undergo progressive wear-and-tear degeneration of both nucleus and annulus intervertebral disk disease
in intervertebral disk disease the nucleus pulposus may be extruded through a tear in the annulus fibrosus
intervertebral disk disease manifests in a sudden onset of back pain that radiates down the leg
intervertebral disk disease is diagnosed used CT scan or myelogram
treatment for intervertebral disk disease is surgery
idiopathic means cause of condition is unknown
in scoliosis the asymmetry of the trunk in due to spinal curvatures
in scoliosis the asymmetry causes one shoulder higher than other & pelvis is tilted so that one __ __ is higher than the other iliac crest
some degree of __ __ __ accompanies scoliosis curvatures rotation of vertebrae
in scoliosis, the rotation of vertebrae may lead to __ __ __ that attach to thoracic vertebrae asymmetry of ribs
a hump-like deformity found in scoliosis is due to posterior protrusion of ribs on one side of thorax
to treat scoliosis in a growing teenager, doctors would use a __ __ to help maintain normal position of spine spinal brace
marked scoliosis may require __ treatment surgical
for patient's with scoliosis, there are various surgical procedures that are used to stabilize and correct spinal curvatures
area of communication between nerve and muscle myoneural junction
when skeletal muscles contract ___ slide together myofilaments
nerve stimulation releases acetylcholine that interacts with receptors on surface of muscle fibers and initiates muscle contraction
this depends on an intact nerve supply, normal transmission of impulses across myoneural junction, & normal metabolic processes within the muscle normal structure and functional integrity
skeletal muscle inflammation myositis
localized myositis in caused from injury or overexertion
due to a systemic disease or widespread degeneration & inflammation of skeletal muscle generalized myositis
widespread degeneration & inflammation of skeletal muscle polymositis
type of polymyositis associated with swelling and inflammation of skin dermatomyositis
group of relatively rare diseases characterized by progressive atrophy or degeneration of skeletal muscle are classified in 2 large categories of muscular atrophy and muscular dystrophy
progressive degeneration of motor nerve cells in cerebral cortex, brain stem & spinal cord that are secondary muscular weakness & atrophy progressive muscular atrophy
degeneration of motor nerve cells in cerebral cortex, brain stem & spinal cord degenerative disease of motor neurons
related to location of degenerating nerve cells w/in CNS & rate at which neuronal degeneration progresses clinical manifestations of progressive muscular atrophy
in muscular dystrophy the nerve supply to muscles is unaffected
abnormality in muscle fibers that causes them to degenerate muscular dystrophy group of diseases
dystrophin is absent in muscle fibers; primarily affecting lower extrem., trunk, hips, & shoulder girdle; appears 1st in early childhood; most common/severe form of muscular dystrophy is called Duchenne
dystrophin produced but either abnormal/produced in insufficient amounts; milder form of muscular dystrophy is called Becker
result from mutation of large gene on X chromosome, & transmitted as X-linked trait to mail children of women who carry defective gene Becker & Duchenne muscular dystrophy
muscle protein, located on inner surface of sarcolemma, maintains structure/function of muscle fibers dystrophin
in both Becker & Duchenne muscular dystrophy, __ __ __ __ leaks from abnormal muscle fibers & high levels can be detected in blood muscle enzyme creativity kinase (CK)
drugs that prolong action of acetylcholine is treatment for myasthenia gravis
rheumatoid arthritis causes chronic synovitis
ingrowth of inflammatory tissue over cartilage destroying it, leading to destruction of joints; deformities common secondary effects of rheumatoid arthritis
joints usually affected by rheumatoid arthritis small joints of hands & feet
special feature of rheumatoid arthritis is the rheumatoid factor
age & sex of patient usually affected by osteoarthritis adult, or older persons of both sexes
major characteristic of osteoarthritis is "wear & tear" degeneration of articular cartilage
secondary effects of osteoarthritis overgrowth of bone & thickening of periarticular soft tissues
special features of osteoarthritis no systemic symptoms or biochemical abnormalities
disturbance of purine metabolism; acute episodes caused by crystals of uric acid in joints major characteristics of gout
gouty arthritis & soft tissue tophi are secondary effect of gout
deposits of uric acid in joint w/damage to joints gouty arthritis
small joints & joint at base of great toe joints usually affected by gout
special feature of gout high blood level of uric acid