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Lecture 28

Citric Acid Cycle

What is the first molecule that feeds into the citric acid cycle? Acetyl-CoA
How many NADH and FADH are produced from one acetyl-CoA entering the citric acid cycle? 3 NADH and 1 FADH
How many ATP are produced from 1 glucose? 28 ATP
How many ATP can be made without the reactions occurring in the mitochondria? 2 ATP
What is a source of oxaloacetate (other than malate) in the liver? Aspartate
What enzyme catalyzes PEP from oxaloacetate? PEP carboxylase
How does alanine eventually end up in the citric acid cycle? Alanine is converted to pyruvate and then acetyl-coA
What citric acid cycle component is glutamate synthesized from? Alphaketoglutarate
Why are acetyl-CoA, fatty acids, citrate and succinyl-CoA negative regulators of the citric acid cycle? These products regulate by feedback inhibition
Why is ATP a negative regulator, while ADP and AMP are positive regulators? High concentration of ADP and AMP indicate that the cell is out of energy
In what cell is Ca2+ a regulator? Muscle
What fungus produces large quantities of citric acid to be used as an additive for food? Aspergillus Niger
Which Citric acid cycle intermediate is used for heme synthesis? Succinyl-CoA
What is the purpose of citric acid addition to food? It is an antioxidant used to preserve food flavor
How many negatively charged carboxyl groups does citrate have? 3
What metal can citrate bind? Aluminum
When the pH of soil is less than 5.0, is aluminum soluble or insoluble? Soluble- it is the Al+3 form
When the pH of soil is alkaline, is aluminum soluble or insoluble? Insoluble- it is in the Al(OH)3 form
What happens to food crops when soil is high in aluminum and low in pH? The plants take up the soluble aluminum which inhibits their growth
How can increasing the secretion of citric acid help plants grow in certain soil conditions? Citric acid could potentially bind the Al+3 and prevent it from being taken up by the cells
Created by: bettyboucher