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CJ Final

There are approx ? courts of general jurisdiction in the U.S 2000
If you are charged with a crime of armed robbery, your trial would take place in which type of court? A court of general jurisdiction
Which state most recently created an inermediate appellate court? Mississippi
Generally, state appellate decisions are based on court transcripts, however, in some instances the felony court will grant a new trial, which is known as? The trial de novo process
How many States currently have an intermediate appelate court in operation? 39
Approx. how many drug courts are ub operation throughout the U.S.? 1000
What is the state court of last resort generally called? State Supreme Court
How many states have unified their trial courts into a singlel administrative system? six
Criminal appeals represent ? percent of the total number of cases processed by the nations appellate courts? 25
In the traditional model, the cout is seen as the setting of an adversarial procedure True
Is is possible for a lower crminal court to sentence a defendant to five years in prison False
Most courts of limitedf jurisdiction are organized along town, municipal and county lines of government False
The legal basis for the current feederal court system was created by president Franklin Roosevelt false
a law degree is mandatory for all judges False
To be a judge, a canidate typically cannot be over the age of seventy True
Part-Time judges are usually practicing attounreys who volunteer their services for free True
The ? are the trial courts of the federal sypstem U.S. district courts
The ? is known as the nation's court of last resort U.S. Supreme court
The supreme courtisses a ? indicating that it has decided to hear a case writ of certioran
Providing more jedges, diversion programs and bail reform are solutions for the problem of? court congestion
The three-part judicial selection method of nomination,appointment and confirmation election is known as the ? missouri plan
There are approx ? state court prosecutors' offices employing over 79,000 attourneys in the U.S. 2300
Which of the following is not one of the duties of a procecutor? Maintain adminitrative control over grand jury proceedings
The prosecutor's title, such as district attorney or U.S. attorney depends on? The level of government and the jurisdiction they serve
The term community prosecution refers to? A prosecutorial philosophy that emphasizes community support and cooperation
The view that prosecuting minor crimes would represent a waste of time is an example of the ? factors that influence prosecutorial dicretion System
A formal written document identifying the criminal charge, the date adn place where the crime occured, and the circumstances of the arrest is known as the? Complaint
Which of the following pretrial release mechanisms occurs at the earlest point in the criminal justice process? A field citation release
What is another term for an indictment issued by a grand jury? True Bill
"District attorney" is usually the title given to the chief prosecutor for a county. True
It is very difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of community prosecuiion True
Public interest groups, suchas gun control advocates, rarely target prosecutors in their lobbying efforts False
Conviction rates for indigent defendants and those with their own lawyears are about the same in federal and state courts True
Plea Bargaining is rare in the American Justice System False
When a defendant enters a guilty please, he/she mus afmit to all elements of the crime in question True
Release on recognizance required a money deposit as in the bail system False
Virtually all large jurisdictions have pretrial release programs True
Diversion Programs allow a defendant to enter treatment instead of trial True
The ethical duties of the prosecutor and defense attorney are outlines in the American Bar Assocatons ? Model code for professionl responsibility
Prosecutional ? describes the decision a prosecutor makes in whether or not to prosecute a case Discretion
A ? is a counter part to the prosecutor in the criminal process Defense attorney
Durng the process of ? defedants are released on their word that they will return to court release of recogizance
A ? is the name given to the report of a grand jury investigation presentment
What common-law practice allowed judges to suspend punishment so that convicted offenders could seek a pardon, gather new evidence or demonstrate that they had reformed their behavior Judicial reprieve
People who made themselves responsible for the behavior of the offender after release from common law court in the middle ages were known as? Sureties
When did the federal government establish a probation system for the U.S. district courts? 1925
What happends when probation is revoked? The probation contract and the original sentence is imposed
Who supervises hiring and sertermines training needs in the typical probation department? The chief probation officer
The first English penal institutions operated under the ? system Fee
English penal institutions built in the tenth century were used to ? hold pretrial detainees and those waiting for thier sentence to be carried out
What was the name of the British prison reformer and sherriff who wrote the state of prisons and was influential in creating humane standards in the british penal system? John Howard
The Pennsylvania system inspired the creation of similar prisons in New Jersey
Probation typically involves the suspension of an offenders sentence in exchange for a promise of good behavior in the community True
Judges are generally granted to tailor the restrictions of a probation sentence to fit what they deem to be the needs of the individual offender True
The probation officer has little to say in the planning of a probationers treatment program False
Restitution ranks below probation on the punishment ladder Falso
The modern American correctional system had its origins in New York False
The Quakers pressured the state legislature to improve condintions in the prisons in Pennsylvania True
Rehabilitation has come to replace incapacitation as the guiding philosophy in modern prisons False
Restorative Justice seeks to inclue all parties-offender, victim and communitiy in the justice process True
During the Middle Ages ? were individuals who made themselves responsible for ofenders on probation or reprive release Sureties
A ? is a sentence of incarceration that is not carried out unless the offender disobeys the rules of probation while in the community suspended sentence
Programs such as fines and foreiture are examples of ? santions intermediate
The Peniteniary house was a central feature of the early ? prison system Pennsylvania
Thomas Mott Osborne was an early 20th century prison reformer who led the ? League Mutual Welfare
? are facilities that hold both people that are guilty of crime and those hwo are awaiting trial Jails
a ? prison houses mainly white collar adn other nonviolent offenders minimun security
The U.S. Corrections corporation opened the first ? in 1986 private state
The fact that prisons have inmates who are prevented from leaving, forced to obey rules, and under constant scrutiny characterizes them as? Total institutions
What factor is said to have precipitated the "new" inmate culture? The Black Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s
What is the most common outcome for children of a single mother when the mother is sent to prison? They are placed in the care of a relative or family friend.
Which of the following does not account for the limited rehabilitative treatment available in prison? The philosophy of greater eligibility
Which seventeenth-century English laws provided for the appointment of overseers to indenture destitute or neglected children? Poor laws
What was the burden of proof for verdicts handed down by the juvenile court? Preponderance of the evidence
What impact did the Supreme Court have on the juvenile justice system in the 1960s and 1970s? It radically altered the juvenile justice system through rulings that established due process rights for juveniles comparable to those of defendants in the adult criminal justice system
. Which type of case is most likely to be referred to the juvenile court by police? Cases involving violence
What is the most common form of juvenile correction? Release to parental custody
Inmates must learn to adopt a lifestyle that shields them from victimization while in prison. True
An inmate who asks a guard for help is called a punk. False
Mail to inmates may be censored or destroyed. True
Research has shown that heterosexual male inmates often turn to homosexual sex in prison. True
The child-savers movement was made up of middle-class civic leaders who helped poor children. True
Charles Loring Brace was the philanthropist who developed the Children's Aid Society. True
The efforts of the child savers prompted the development of the first comprehensive juvenile court in 1899. True
Early reform schools sought to rehabilitate juvenile offenders. False
Acts such as truancy and running away from home are considered status offenses True
Given its designed segregation and surveillance, the modern prison is a model of a? Total institution
Clemmer coined the term ____________________ process to refer to an inmate's adjustment to prison life. prisionization
Female inmates often form groups called ____________________ to cope with prison life. make believe families
Prison treatment programs in which inmates leave the institution to work in the community are known as work release or ____________________ programs. furlough
The ____________________ were middle-class civic leaders who influenced state and local governments to create institutions called reform schools. child savers
The term "agree to a(n) ____________________" is used in place of "admitting guilt" when plea bargaining juvenile cases. finding
A juvenile trial is also called a(n) ____________________ hearing fact-finding
The ? Amerndment gaurentees the defendant the right to a jury trial? 6th
In what case sis the Court rule that all defendant in felony cases have the right to a jury trial? Duncan vs. Lousiana
What is the minimum number of jury members allowed in a criminal trial as determined by the Supreme Court in Williams v. Florida? 6
Which of the following rules applies to a six-person jury in a serious felony case? Their verdict must be unanimous
What was the most common state administered punishment in ealry Greece and Roman civilizations? Banishment
What term was adopted un the 12th century to refer to a breach of faith with one's fuedal lord? Felonia
What was the final fate in convicts to North America or Australia once their period of pervice was completed in the colonies? There were granted pardons to gain theri freedom
Sentencing for the purpose of gerneral detterence has most to do with ? Affecting the perception of the general public
What is another term that retributin advocated use to describe the concept of blameworthiness? Just deserts
A six person jury is not allowed in a death penalty case True
A person does not ave the right to counsel at trial in a misdemeanor case False
Any person who is currently in jail on the basis of a probation violaton who did not have leagal counsel representation at trial is being held unconstitutionally True
Criminal trails permit three different types of verdicts False
In a criminal case,a preponderance of the evidence is sometimes enough to convict False
The beginning of the Enlightenment brought about the end of transporting criminals to America False
A sentencing target of eight to twenty-five years in prison is an example of a determinate sentence False
More than two thirds of all convicted felons are sentenced to time behind bars True
Over 100 countries actively utilize the death penalty False
The ? also known as the jury array, is the initial list of people chosen for jury duty Venire
A weapon or photography is an example of a pieve of ? evidence real
A motion entered by the defense attorney for a ? verdict is a request for the judge to order the jury to return a verdict of not guilty Directed
The ? goal of punishment is centered on the idea that the offender should compensate the victim and society for the crime Equity
Supporters of the death penalty argue that capital punishment conforms to the requirement that the punishment be ? to the crime proportional to the crime
Opponents of the death penalty argue that the ? effect of the death penalty may produce more violence brutalization
Created by: arouse12