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Criminal Justice

There are approximately ? courts of general jurisdiction in the US 2000
if you are charged with the crime of armed robbery, your trial would take place in which type of court? A court of General Jurisdiction
Which state most recently created an intermediate appellate court? Mississippi
Generally, state appellate decisions are based on court transcripts. However, in some instances the felony court will grant a new trial, which is known as: A trial de novo process
how many states currently have an intermediate appellate court (IAC) in operation thirty-nine
Approximately how many drug courts are in operation throughout the US? 1000
What is the state court of last resort generally called? State Supreme Court
How many states have unified their trial courts into a single administrative system? six
Criminal appeals represent ? percent of the total number of cases processed by the nations appellate courts? 25
T/F? In the traditional model, the court is seen as the setting of an adversarial procedure. True
T/F? it is possible for a lower criminal court to sentence a defendant to five years in prison. false
T/F? most courts of limited jurisdiction are organized along town, municipal, and county lines of government false
T/F? the legal basis for the current federal court system was created by President Franklin Roosevelt false
T/F? a law degree is mandatory for all judges false
T/F? to be a judge a candidate typically cannot be over the age of seventy true
T/F? part-time judges are usually practicing attorneys who volunteer their services for free true
T/F? in the traditional model, the court is seen as the setting of an adversarial procedure. false
T/F? most courts of limited jurisdiction are organized along town, municipal and county lines of government true
The __ are the trial courts of the federal system US district courts
The __ is known as the nation's court of last resort US supreme court
The supreme court issues a(n) ___ indicating that it has decided to hear a case writ of certiorari
Providing for more judges, diversion programs, and bail reform are solutions for the problem of __. overcrowding
The three-part judicial selection method of nomination, appointment and confirmation election is known as the ___. missouri plan
There are approximately ___ state court prosecutors' offices employing over 79,000 attorneys in the US 2300
which of the following is not one of the duties of a prosecutor? investigate possible violations of the law **maintain administrative control over grade jury proceedings represent gov't in appeals subpoena witnesses to a crime
the prosecutor's title, such as district attorney or US attorney, depends on the level of government and the jurisdiction they serve
the term community prosecution refers to: a prosecutorial philosophy that emphasizes community support and cooperation
the view that prosecuting minor crimes would represent a waste of time is an example of the ___ factors that influence prosecutorial discretion system
the formal written document identifying the criminal charge, the date and place where the crime occurred, and the circumstances of the arrest is known as the complaint
when would the defense and prosecution begin plea negotiations when the defendant pleads guilty at the arraignment
which of the following pretrial release mechanisms occurs at the earliest point in the criminal justice process? a field citation release
what is another term for an indictment issued by a grad jury? true bill
T/F "district attorney" is usually the title given to the chief prosecutor for a county true
T/F it is very difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of a community prosecution true
T/F public interest groups, such as gun control advocates, rarely target prosecutors in their lobbying efforts false
T/F conviction rates for indigent defendants and those with their own lawyers are about the same in federal and state courts true
T/F plea bargaining is rare in the American justice system false
T/F when a defendant enters a guilty plea, he/she must admit to all elements of the crime in question true
T/F release on recognizance requires a money deposit as in the bail system false
T/F virtually all large jurisdictions have pretrial release programs true
T/F diversion programs allow a defendant to enter treatment instead of trial true
Prosecutorial ___ describes the decision a prosecutor makes in whether or not to prosecute a case discretion
the ___ is the counterpart to the prosecutor in the criminal process defense attorney
during the process of ___, defendants are released on their word that they will return to court release of recognizance
A(n) ___ is the name given to the report of a grand jury investigation presentment
the ___ amendment guarantees the defendant the right to a jury trial 6th
in what case did the court rule that all defendants in felony cases have the right to a jury trial Duncan v. Louisiana
what is the minimum number of jury members allowed in a criminal trial as determined by the Supreme Court in Williams v. Florida 6
which of the following rules applies to a 6-person jury in a serious felony case their verdict must bu unanimous
what was the most common state-administered punishment in early Greece and Roman civilizations banishments
what term was adopted in the twelfth century to refer to a breach of faith with one's feudal lord Felonia
what was the final fate of convicts transported to North America or Australia once their period of service was completed in the colonies they were granted pardons to gain their freedom
sentencing for the purpose of general deterrence has most to do with: affecting the perception of the general public
what is another term that retribution advocates use to describe the concept of blameworthiness just deserts
T/F a 6-person jury is not allowed in a death penalty case true
T/F a person doesn't have the right to counsel at trial in misdemeanor case false
T/F any person who is currently in jail on the basis of a probation violation who did not have legal counsel representation at trial is being held unconstitutionally true
T/F criminal trials permit three different types of verdicts false
T/F the beginning of the enlightenment brought about the end of transporting criminals to america false
T/F a sentencing target of 8-25 years in prison is an example of a determinate sentence false
T/F more than two-thirds of all convicted felons are sentenced to time behind bars true
T/F over one-hundred countries actively utilize the death penalty false
the ___, also known as the jury array, is the initial list of people chosen for jury duty venire
a weapons or photograph is an example of a piece of ___ evidence real
a motion entered by the defense attorney for a(n) ___ verdict is a request for the judge to order the jury to return a verdict of not guilty directed
the ___ goal of punishment is centered on the idea that the offender should compensate the victim and society for the crime equity
supporters for the death penalty argue that capital punishment conforms to the requirement that the punishment be ___ to the crime proportional
opponents of the death penalty argue that the ___ effect of the death penalty may produce more violence brutalization
what common-law practice allowed judges to suspend punishment so that convicted offenders could seek a pardon, gather new evidence, or demonstrate that they had reformed their behavior? judicial reprieve
people who made themselves responsible for the behavior of the offender after release from the common law court in the Middle Ages were known as: sureties
when did the federal government establish a probation system for US district courts? 1925
what happens when probation is revoked? the probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is imposed
who supervises hiring and determines training needs in the typical probation department? the chief probation officer
english penal institutions built in the tenth century were used to: hold pretrial detainees and those waiting for their sentence to be carried out
the first english penal institutions operated under the ___ system fee
what was the name of the british prison reformer and sheriff who wrote The State of Prisons and was influential in creating humane standards in the british penal system John Howard
the Pennsylvania system inspired the creation of similar prisons in: new jersey
T/F probation typically involves the suspension of an offender's sentence in exchange for a promise of good behavior in the community true
T/F judges are generally granted discretion to tailor the restrictions of a probation sentence to fit what they deem to be the needs of the individual offender true
T/F the probation officer has little say in the planning of a probationer's treatment program false
T/F restitution ranks below probation on the punishment ladder false
T/F the "modern" american correctional system had its origins in NY false
T/f the quakers pressured the state legislature to improve conditions in the prisons in pennsylvania true
T/F rehabilitation has come to replace incapacitation as the guiding philosophy in modern prisons false
T/F restorative justice seeks to include all parties-offender, victim, and community-in the justice process true
during the Middle Ages, ___ were individuals who made themselves responsible for offenders on probation or reprieve release sureties
A(n) ___ is a sentence of incarceration that is not carried out unless the offender disobeys the rules of probation while in the community suspended sentence
Programs such as fines and forfeiture are examples of ___ sanctions intermediate
the penitentiary house was a central feature in the early ___ prison system pennsylvania
thomas Mott Osborne was an early twentieth-century prison reformer who led the ___ league mutual welfare
___ are facilities that hold both people that are guilty of a crime and those that are awaiting trial jails
A(n) ___ prison houses mainly white-collar and other nonviolent offenders minimum-security
the US corrections corporation opened the first ___ prison in 1986 private
the fact that prisons have inmates who are prevented from leaving, forced to obey rules, and under constant scrutiny characterizes them as: total institutions
what factor is said to have precipitated the "new" inmate culture? the black power movement of the 1960's and 1970's
what is the most common outcome for children of a single mother when the mother is sent to prison? they are placed in the care of a relative or family friend
which of the following does not account for the limited rehabilitative treatment available in prison? the philosophy of greater eligibility
which seventeenth century english laws provided for the appointment of overseers to indenture destitute or neglected children? poor laws
what was the burden of proof for verdicts handed down by the juvenile court? preponderance of the evidence
what impact did the supreme court have on the juvenile justice system in the 1960's and 1970's? it radically altered the juvenile justice system through rulings that established due process rights for juveniles comparable to those of defendants in the adult criminal justice system
which type of case is most likely to be referred to the juvenile court by police? cases involving violence
what is the most common form of juvenile correction? release to parental custody
T/F inmates must learn to adopt a lifestyle that shields them from victimization while in prison true
T/F an inmate who asks a guard for help is called a punk false
T/F mail to inmates may be censored or destroyed true
T/F research has shown that heterosexual male inmates often turn to homosexual sex in prison true
T/F the child-savers movement was made up of middle-class civic leaders who helped poor children true
T/F Charles Loring Brace was the philanthropist who developed the Children's Aid Society true
T/F the efforts of the child savers prompted the development of the first comprehensive juvenile court in 1899 true
T/F early reform schools sought to rehabilitate juvenile offenders false
acts such as truancy and running away from home are considered status offenses true
given its designed segregation and surveillance, the modern prison is a model of a(n) ____ total institution
Clemmer coined the term ____ process to refer to an inmate's adjustment to prison life prisonization
female inmates often form groups called ____ to cope with prison life make-believe families
prison treatment programs in which inmates leave the institution to work in the community are known as work release or ____ programs furlough
the ___ were middle-class civic leaders who influenced state and local governments to create institutions called reform schools child-savers
the term "agree to a(n) ___" is used in place of "admitting guilt" when plea bargaining juvenile cases finding
a juvenile trial is also called a(n) ____ hearing fact-finding
Created by: frankiegym