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Earthquake Terms.

Faults A planar fracture in a volume of rock in which there has been significant displacement.
Continental Drift The movement of Earth's continents relative to each other.
Plate Tectonics A scientific theory that describes the large scale motions of Earth's Lithosphere.
Earth's Crust The outermost solid shell of rocky Earth.
Foreshocks A small earthquake precedes a major earthquake or volcanic erruption.
San Andreas Fault The boundary between two plates, the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate.
Elastic Energy Elastic energy is internal energy that can be converted into mechanical energy under adiabatic conditions.
Elastic Reboud The elastic rebound theory is an explanation for how energy is spread during earthquakes.
Fault Creep Slow, more or less continuous movement occurring on faults due to ongoing tectonic deformation.
Stick-Slip Stick-slip is caused by the surfaces alternating between sticking to each other and sliding over each other, with a corresponding change in the force of friction.
Aftershocks An aftershock is a smaller earthquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake in the same area.
Earthquake The vibration of the Earth produced by rapid release of energy.
Focus The actual point in the Earth's Crust where earthquake waves begin.
Displacement Earth crustal displacement refers to scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of the Earth's crust.
Horizontal Displacement The component of the slip of a fault that is parallel to the strike of the fault.
Vertical Displacement In tectonics, vertical displacement is the shifting of land in a vertical direction resulting in a permanent change in elevation.
Normal Fault (divergent plate boundary) This occurs when the crust is extended. It is also called an extentional fault.
Thrust Fault (convergent plate boundary) This is the same sense of motion as a reverse fault, but with the dip of the fault plane at less than 45 degrees.
Strike-Slip-Fault (transform plate boundary) The fault surface is usually near vertical and the footwall moves either left or right or laterally with very little vertical motion.
Seismologist Earth scientists, specialized in geophysics, who study the genesis and the propagation of seismic waves in geological materials.
Seismology The scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth.
Seismograph instruments that sense and record the motion of the Earth.
Seismogram A graph output by a seismograph. It is a record of the ground motion at a measuring station as a function of time.
Seismic Waves Waves of force that travel through the Earth or other elastic bodies, for example as a result of an earthquake, explosion, or some other process that imparts forces.
Surface Waves A mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media, usually two fluids with different densities.
Body Waves A seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth's surface.
P-Waves (primary wave) Waves, that can travel through gases, solids and liquids, including the Earth. P-waves are produced by earthquakes.
S-Waves (secondary wave) one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
Created by: john_hazelton