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Govt. 2303 - Exam 3

Chapter 6, 9, & 10

Public Opinion What the public thinks about a particular issue @ a PARTICULAR TIME. Opinion change over time AND they tend to be measured by opinion polls.
Polls interviews/surveys of a SAMPLE of citizens used to estimate how the public feels about an issue or set of issues.
Sample a SUBSET of a population (part).
Concensus Opinion When there is general agreement on an issue.
Divisive Opinion When opinions are sharply divided.
Socialization how an individual acquires his/her set of values/beliefs. Occurs over a long period of time. Generalization effect. Gender effect. Lifestyle effect.
Generational Effect based on generations.
Gender Effect differences b/w men and women (on several issues).
Lifestyle Effects affects how someone thinks over a long time (religious, moral, economic, etc.)
Sources (affecting) family, peers & peer group influence, education (school), region of country; opinion leaders' influence, media presentation.
Demographic Influences education (school), economic status/income, religious influence, race & ethnicity, gender, region of country, age.
Straw Polls variety of ways (movie theaters/diners) -- (Ex: determining political party by popcorn bucket design).
Literary Digest used straw polls that are now seen as highly problematic. (Ex: only for people w/ phones & cars). {oversampling}
Issues w/ Literary Digest timing (cards are sent in August & election in November), self-selection (only those people interested are likely to return postcards), oversampling.
In order for a poll to be reliable, it must have: proper question wording; an accurate sample (sample & population).
Kinds of Polling Mail Survey Polling; Face to Face Polling; Telephone Polling; Internet Polling.
Types of Polls Tracking Polls, Exits Polls, Push Polls, and Deliberative Polls.
Tracking Polls continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart its daily rise & fall in popularity. Good reflection of what a person thinks over a period of time.
Exit Polls polls conducted @ polling places on election day (done as people leave the voting site). Must be 1/4 of a mile away from polling station.
Push Polls attempts to push/persuade a person to vote/support issue/candidate. Persuasive!
Deliberative Polls a relatively large scientific sample of Americans (600) were selected for intensive briefings, discussion & presentations about issue clusters including foreign affairs, the family, and the economy.
Random Sampling selected @ random (no bias & everyone has the same chance/likelihood of being selected).
Stratified Sampling Ex: electing every other person
Quota Sampling no randomness! Selecting a certain characteristic and surveying just that group.
Margin of Error the difference b/w a sample's results and the true result if the entire population had been interviewed.
Electorate people eligible to vote (have all the characteristics).
Voter person who votes.
To Vote: 18 yrs old. No felony (conviction). American citizen. Registered to vote. Not be declared mentally incompetent (@ court). Resident of state (depends on which state you reside in).
President & Vice President 35 yrs old. Natural born citizen/ Resident of state for @ least 14 years.
Senator 30 yrs old. Resident of state for @ least 9 yrs. Do not have to be natural born citizens. Establish residence (state representing).
Representative 25 yrs old. Resident of state for @ least 7 yrs. Do not have to be natural born citizens.
Retrospective people base decisions based on what person/party has done for them in the past.
Prospective notion about what person/party will do for them in the future.
Primaries Contests among candidates of the same party.
General Election Contests among candidates of opposing parties.
Open Primaries Register to vote..make a decision to pick candidates when voting.
Closed Primaries Register to vote..and register for a specific party (register w/ a specific political party).
Blanket Primaries Register to vote..but you do not have to stick to a specific party. (more open than open primaries b/c you can mix your choices). Focus on positions rather than party; vote on candidate on "office-to-office" basis.
Run-Off Primaries if one candidate has only 1% or 1.5% votes away from another candidate...candidates will then "run-off" b/w each other/ (positions are too close to call winner fairly).
Caucuses similar to a town-hall meeting..tend to be true for rural areas. Hold primaries in January (cold months); discussion amongst party faithfuls & candidates; Direct Democracy (discussing issues directly). Deliberation of issues of the day.
Front Loading The practice of moving presidential primary elections to the early part of the campaign to maximize the impact of these primaries on the nomination.
Super Tuesday Official election day...smaller states w/ fewer electoral votes hold their primaries this day..very important for smaller states to maximize impact.
How do we calculate the number of ELECTORAL VOTES? # of people in the HOUSE + # of people in the SENATE = # of ELECTORAL VOTES
What is the minimum number of electoral votes a state can have? 3 (2 senators and 1 representative).
TX has 34 electoral votes, why? 2 senators & 32 representatives.
Electoral College indirect system of Democracy.
How does the electoral college work? citizens vote for electors and electors vote for presidency.
Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson ran against Aaron Burr (same political party). Results were really close (almost a tie). No duel! Jefferson wins. 12th amendment established.
12th Amendment established separate offices b/w PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT. If election is too close to call, candidate w/ the top 2 votes are elected (decided) by the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Popular Vote how the population votes (has nothing to do with determining who wins election).
Electoral Vote IMPORTANT! Determines who wins the election.
Majority Representation TX -- McCain gets majority, then all electoral votes go to that state.
Proportional Representation CO -- Obama has 70% of votes, he does NOT get all 9 electoral votes, he only gets 70% (5)...and the remaining 4 will go to McCain.
Plurality person w/ most votes win. (majority is 51%). (Ex: 1992 election ... Clinton=43%, Dole=40%, Perrel=17% ... Clinton wins even if there is no majority winner!
In Primaries... majority & proportional matters!
In General Election... plurality matters!
How do electoral votes work? (Ex: TEXAS) Technically, there are 64 people ready to vote (34=Republican, 34=Democrats)...if the majority vote is Republican, then the REPUBLICAN electors cast their vote (vice-versa).
Presidential Election every 4 years.
Congressional Election Senate=every 6 years; House=every 2 years.
Midterm & Off-Year Elections good response to see how people in power are doing.
Incumbency person is running for a position that they already have.
Incumbency--House of Representatives 90% chance of winning (re-election).
Incumbency--Senate 60% chance of winning (re-election).
Losing a Race: Scandals, redistricting/Gerrymandering, coat-tail effect.
Redistricting re-drawing district lines..The redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within each state. Happens when the census is taken.
Gerrymandering political part of redistricting..drawing of legislative district boundary lines for the purpose of obtaining partisan/factional advantage.
When is gerrymandering complete? A district is said to be gerrymandered when its shape is manipulated by the dominant party in the state legislature to maximize electoral strength at the expense of the minority party.
Coat-Tail Effect Ex: based on Obama's actions, you'll most likely vote Democrat (sweep more people IN from the same party). Ex: based on Obama's actions, you'll most likely vote Republican (sweep people OUT from the same party).
Voter Turnout The percentage of citizens taking part in the election process; the number of eligible voters that actually “turn out” on election day to cast their ballots.
Factors Influencing Who Votes age, education, income, minority status, 2-party competition, interest in politics.
Why People do NOT Vote uninformative media coverage & negative campaigning; rational ignorance effect; registration requirements (#1 reason); historical restrictions (literacy tests, black codes, etc.)
Rational Ignorance knowledgeable people that choose not to vote b/c they believe that their 1 vote will not count.
Motor-Voter (remedying lower voter turnout) Passed to help voter turn-out. It makes it convenient to register by requiring all states to allow people who apply for a license to also register to vote, whether they conduct business in person or by mail.
Voting Through the Mail (remedying lower voter turnout) literally getting your ballot through the mail, and submitting your vote.
Internet Voting (remedying lower voter turnout) failed miserably in California b/c of fraud.
Media's Functions Entertainment. Reporting the news. Identifying Public Relations. Socializing New Generations. Providing a Political Forum. Making Profits.
Media History Mass-readership newspapers developed. Yellow Journalism. Muckraking. Electromagnetic Signal Age.
Yellow Journalism oversimplified & oversensational headlines.
Muckraking bring news not to oversensationalize, but to bring them to people's attention. Bringing issues to life.
News Media Sources talk shows. politics. internet broadcasting. internet. blogging. podcasting.
Coverage of Government President speaks through PRESS SECRETARY or PRESS CONFERENCES.
Press Secretary Chief Spokesperson of the Executive (president).
Coverage of Government Congress' 535 members pose a challenge. (speakers & majority & minority leaders).
Majority Leaders/Whips Majority Party in the House & the Senate. (as of now=Democrats).
Minority Leaders/Whips Minority Party in the House & the Senate. (as of now=Democrats).
Coverage of Government Supreme Court is more private; coverage is limited. Usually occurs only when there is an APPOINTMENT/CONFIRMATION of new justice, or when there is an IMPORTANT DECISION about legislation.
Descriptive DESCRIBING the facts.
Prescriptive DESCRIBING and ANALYZING the facts.
FCC (Federal Communications Commission) an independent regulatory agency that has far more control over the broadcast media than it does over print (b/c of short supply of air waves).
How does the FCC work? 5 people (no more than 3 can be of the same party). Appointed by President (executive). 5 year terms.
T.V. TV broadcasting -- renew license every 5 years.
Radio Radio broadcasting -- renew license every 7 years.
FCC Regulations -- Equal Time Rule requires broadcast stations to sell campaign time EQUALLY to ALL candidates (but not all candidates buy that/this time).
FCC Regulations -- Right of Rebuttal Rule requires person (candidate) who has been "attacked" on t.v./radio station to have the right to respond on the air. (candidates don't necessarily always use this; most choose to add this time to their agenda).
FCC Regulations -- Fairness Doctrine requires broadcasters to cover info (policies) adequately & present contrast views of all info presented. No longer exists (ended 1989; never renewed). Broadcast Stations said that they were doing it anyway; Journalists argue that is IS needed.
Free Press & Free Trial (defamation, inaccurate sources=libel).
Confidentiality (sources) Branzburg v. Hayes
Censorship of the Press government CANNOT intrude ... unless, they are choosing to leak information that affects NATIONAL SECURITY.
First Amendment Issues Free Press
Press & Government adversaries who need each other; news leaks & "backgrounders" (background of candidates; mostly during general elections); investigative reporting; Freedom of Information Act.
Investigative Reporting understand what is happening in a contextual way.. reminds us of previous events.
Freedom of Information Act makes sure that information is protected so that others won't utilize it.. protects the person whose information it has/is.
Created by: kserrano005