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First aid

Bone joint and muscle injuries

What are the two types of fractures? Closed – Skin is intact, no wound present Open – Skin over fracture site is broken
How do you asses a fracture? Check & treat ABC’s especially w/ hip Determine mechanism Remove or cut clothing to assess site Look for deformity or shortening Assess injury with DOTS
What is the acronym CSM? Circulation – check distal pulses, radial and posterior tibial. With peds, do capillary refill Sensation – Squeeze fingers or toes. Best check for nerve damage. Movement – Inability to move comes later. Not always a good indicator.
What is a dislocation? – joint comes apart and stays apart. Signs & symptoms same as fractures: deformity, severe pain and swelling.
What do you do about a dislocation? Check CSM, use RICE & splint Do not try and reduce dislocation Get medical attention
What is a sprain? Stretching and tearing of ligaments in a joint which is usually injured by twisting
How should sprains be treated? Treat immediately with RICE: Rest – Injuries heal faster w/ rest Ice – 20 min. on, 20 min off, for 48 hours Compression – Use ace bandage. Elevation – Prop it up above level of heart
What is a strain? Treat immediately with RICE:Rest – Injuries heal faster w/ restIce – 20 min. on, 20 min off, for 48 hoursCompression – Use ace bandage.Elevation – Prop it up above level of heart
What should you look for when there is a strain? Muscle is stretched beyond it’s normal range of motion and tears.
How do you care for a contusion? look for swelling, pain & bruising. Treat w/ RICE
What is a cramp? muscle goes into uncontrolled spasm resulting in severe pain.
How do you relieve a cramp? Stretch (extend) muscle as quickly as possible.
Created by: Maurice Goodall Maurice Goodall