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History of Mexico 2

Hacienda huge land owning system. Run by elites or hacendados. Huge with a million plus acres. Serve local and international markets selling “Spanish” productions. Main use is agriculture and ranching. The land is rented out to a few permanent workers. Feudal syst
Bourbon reforms and their effect –economic Spain’s economy is in Shambles, Philip VII uses Mexican economy to fix. Ends monopolies, encourages free trade, opens more ports and ends fleet system. Abolishes Casa de Contraction. Makes mining reforms. In general, Mexico produces more.
Bourbon reforms and their effects- administration Creoles replaced with peninsulars (people born in Spain). Purchase of position creates bitterness and resentment. Intendencies, new crown official who can collect taxes and is main judicial office. Overhauls judicial system, does not let people buy office
Criolloismo Pride in being creole. “I’m not a Spaniard, I’m an American.”
Bourbon reforms and their effects- ecclesiastic Bourbons try to limit wealth and power of church. Have parishes reveal account books. 1767 the King expulses the Jesuits (society of Jesus), a powerful and wealthy group with great ties to the pope. Jesuits do not deal with the king. Act of Consolidation
Act of Consolidation (1804) Uses assets and funds of church in government treasury. Church was major source of credit and now forced to call in loans. Reduces lots of people (creoles) to financial ruin. Turns people against the crown.
Count of Revillagigedo (1789-1794). Took detailed census and made capitol improvements (greatest). Increased modernization.
Mexican wars of Independence (1810- 1821), radically stratified, caste society with a growing rip between creoles and peninsulars. Typical immigrant is a poor Spanish merchant, creoles are unhappy with institutional advancement.
Juntas dedicated groups to preserving creoles and creole rights.
Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo priest, “father of wars of Independence.” Creole with liberal views, priest in Indian village of Dolores. Devotes himself to improve conditions for parishners and Indians.
Grito de Dolores September 16, 1810. Speech made by Hidalgo, cry for independence. Calls for independence and revolt. “Death to bad government, death to gachupines (Spaniards), and long live Ferdinand 7.”
Hidlago’s Rebellion Approximately 300 Indians fight under banner of Virgin of Guadalupe, highlights not being a Spaniard. Hidalgo wants Spanish wealth but remain loyal to the king, eliminate slavery and Indian tribute. Creoles feel alienated. Becomes a race war and war for i
Siege of Guanajuato Second biggest city, incredibly wealthy and Spanish controlled. Hidalgo storms city, massive slaughter and shock that so many Spaniards were killed. Army with Allende joins revolutionary forces. Hidalgo’s rebellion is no longer a mob but an army.
Failures of Hidalgo’s Rebellion Disagreements between Hidalgo and Allende (Army), failure to distinguish race (Spanish problem), lack of control and Hidalgos failure to understand the depth of hatred.
Father Jose Maria Morelos y Pavón Mestizo priest who replaces Hidalgo, more effective leader. Abandons loyalty to Ferdinand VII. Goals – radical plans for land distribution, Indian and mestizo integration in society. Highlight of power, Congress of Chilapancingo which declares independenc
Congress of Chipancingo 1813, Congress drafts official documents of independence. Ratifies a decleration of independence and drafts a constitution. Constitution has a weak executive branch but strong legislative branch. Catholicism is declare religion of the state.
Constitution of Apatzingán 1814, outlines the fundamental ideas of revolution. Abolition of slavery and all forms of Indian tribute. Colonial classifications of race eliminated with new equality under the law. Reaffirms ideas for Congress of Chipancingo. People are drawn in under p
Agustín Itrubide Royalist, highest ranking Creole. Captures and executes Morelos. Eventually becomes “Father of Independence” after defeat of Viceroy at Mexico City in 1821. Flees in 1824, eventually returns and is executed.
Plan de Iguala (Treaty of Cordoba) 1821, Guarantees – Roman Catholicism is the official religion. Absolute independence from Spain under a constitutional monarchy, new monarch is Bourbon. Recognition of racial equality. Army of three guarantees, Iturbide joins with revolutionaries. Movemen
Plan de Casa Mata Ends Iturbide’s empire and forms republic of Mexico. Iturbide flees in 1824. Guadalupe Victore becomes 1st president of Mexican republic.
Centralists want central government to make all decisions, strong central government. Conservatives, support from the clergy, hacendados and army officers. Led by the Catholic Church. Had major distrust of the USA but looked to Europe for guidance.
Federalists Provincial autonomy, liberals (liberal creoles) Want to end fueros. Against corporate structure and corporation of the church.
Fuero special rights to clergy and military.
Caudillo Charismatic dictators with military background, become military authority. Most are large wealthy landowners. Cultivate a strong regional support, how they rise to power. Cultivate client/ patronage relationships, deep loyalty among masses and elite. Buil
Constitution of 1824 establishes Estados Unidos Mexicanos, United States of Mexico. Parallels US constitution. Executive, elected by state legislature. Judicial- bicameral legislation. Catholic church holds monopoly on religion, believes religious tolerance leads to amoral so
Antonio López de Santa Ana Pérez de Lebrón Continues to march in and save government, country. First elected President in 1833 after overthrowing Bustamonte. Will dominate until 1855 (president 11 times). Abolishes constitution of 1824, replaces with Siete Leyes. Country in debt, trouble with Unit
Pastry War France tries to invade Mexico. France gives in, Mexico is enormously in debt. Santa Ana loses leg, funeral for leg. Mexico is in debt to France.
Reforms of Gómes Farías Vice President of Santa Ana. Liberal. Reduces the size of the military, limits their instruction to religion only. People revolt and cry to Santa Ana.
Siete Leyes Seven laws, replaces constitution of 1824 by Santa Ana. States transformed into military departments, governors handpicked by President…
John Slidell Sent by United States president Polk as a diplomat to Mexico City. Involved in border dispute over rio grande. Slidell negotiates Texas, California and New Mexico. Mexico threatens rebellion, leads to war with United States. Mexico eventually loses territ
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidlago ends War with United States and Mexico. Confirms titles to TX, CA and NM to United States. Mexico keeps everything south of rio grande. Cuts Mexico’s size in half, United States becomes North American power house. Changes dynamic with United States. Leave
Santanismo Liar, traitor, refers to Santa Ana and problems he caused.
Benito Juárez Zapotec indian, does not speak Spanish. Focuses on law against clergy and elite. Juarez discovers plan of Ayutla. As minister of justice establishes “order and progress.” Makes major clerical reforms, dissolving power of Catholic church.
Ley Juárez abolishes fueros. Equality under law. Conservatives hate.
Ley Iglesia separation of church and state. Hugely popular with poor. Attempt to secularize state.
Ley Lerdo land reform. Federal government in charge. Does not reflect social revolution. Rich people still get land.
Clerical reforms of Juárez 1857 Constitution does not recognize Catholicism as state religion. Sweeping urban reforms but no reforms on education. Urban reforms take power away from the church. Rebellion of 1857, conservative response, dissolve congress and arrest Juarez. Leads to
French Intervention Juarez inherits huge debt, approximate defecit of 4 million. Mexicos creditors demand repayments, majority of debt belongs to Europe. Convention of London, occupy ports and collect custom receipts (conservatives agree). Napoleon II steps in at Battle of P
Maximilian French aristocrat, emperor of Mexico under orders of Napoleon. Makes many liberal changes. Shows concern for poor, abolishes debt peonage. Wants to modernize Mexico. Brings in European immigrants. Eventually ousted by Juarez. Convention of Miramar
Social Issues during the Juárez regime wants to unite rural and urban economies, exploit natural resources, invest in foreign goods based on raw materials.
Plateados elegant bandits with control of country side. “Robin Hood.” Steal from the rich, give to the poor. Popular with lower classes. Juarez creates police force to control with lots of power.
Transportation Reforms Veracruz to Mexico city railroad (owned by the British)
Education Reforms Free and mandatory elementary education. Very modern.
Problems of Juárez administration gap between the rich and poor, white and Indian. Difference in development in rural and urban areas, debt peonage expands.
Chalco Rebellion 1868. Julio Chavez Lopes, Indian following – the largest rural revolt (movement). Saw government as exploitive, wants to end the state in the name of anarchy. “We Want Socialism.”
Created by: eabrad7181