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Concept Dis. Ch.21

Liver & Biliary System

benign tumor arising from glands adenoma
secretion of liver containing bile salts, cholesterol, & other substances bile
small terminal bile channel located between liver cords bile canaliculus
derivatives of bile acids present in bile that act as emulsifiers promoting fat digestion & absorption bile salts
diffuse liver call dmg & scarring w/distortion of liver cell structure & function caused by obstruction of bile ducts biliary cirrhosis
abdominal pain that results when gallstone enters biliary duct system biliary colic
(1) of bile pigments derived from breakdown of hemoglobin bilirubin
inflammation of gallbladder cholecystitis
formation of gallstones cholelithiasis
complex compound containing several ring structures cholesterol
complex compound found in cholesterol sterol
disease characterized by diffuse intrahepatic scarring & liver cell degeneration liver cirrhosis
more soluble form of bilirubin produced by addition of (2) molecules glucuronic acid to bilirubin molecule conjugated bilirubin
(1) of herpes viruses causing infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms in adults & may cause congenital malformation in fetus cytomegalovirus
virus that causes infectious mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus
inflammation of the liver hepatitis
antigen containing in the core of hepatitis B virus hepatitis B core antigen
coating of hepatitis B virus that is also found in great excess in blood of infected patients hepatitis B surface antigen
yellow color of skin resulting from accumulation of bile pigment within blood jaundice
phospholipid having detergent properties similar to bile salts lecithin
phosphorus-containing lipid phospholipid
histologic subdivision of liver in which columns of liver cells converge toward a central vein & portal tracts are located at periphery liver lobule
irregular red-staining structure in cytoplasm of injured liver cells, usually resulting from alcohol-induced liver injury Mallory body
aggregate of bile salt & lecithin molecules by which cholesterol is brought into solution in bile micelle
surgically created anastomosis between portal vein & vena cava, performed to lower portal pressure in treatment of esophageal varices portacaval shunt
branch of hepatic artery, portal vein & bile duct located at periphery of liver lobule portal tract
surgically created anastomosis between splenic & renal veins, performed to lower portal pressure in treatment of esophageal varices splenorenal shunt
nonsurgical method used to lower portal vein pressure in person w/cirrhosis by connecting an intrahepatic branch of portal vein to hepatic vein branch transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
detoxification, storage of vitamin B12, synthesis of plasma proteins, & metabolism of carbohydrates/fat & protein are the functions of the liver
O2 rich blood is delivered to the liver through the hepatic artery
bile greatly improves the digestion of lipids
drug abuse, alcohol abuse, & viral infections can all cause liver damage
has a short incubation period (2-6 weeks), acute in nature, & transferred through fecal-oral contamination hepatitis A
affects mostly drug users already infected with hepatitis B hepatitis D
was spread through infected blood transfusions before 1992 hepatitis C
most frequently seen in the developing world and not encountered often in North America hepatitis E
___ is now recommended against hepatitis A & B vaccination
alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, & alcoholic fatty liver disease are the stages of alcoholic liver disease
alcoholic liver disease & chronic HBV/HBC infections are the most common causes of cirrhosis of the liver
will develop in an attempt to steer blood around a cirrhotic liver bypass veins
infection w/fever, portal-systemic vein bypass, gastrointestinal hemorrhage & binge drinking are capable of triggering triggering hepatic encephalopathy
poisoning of brain due to impaired liver function hepatic encephalopathy
autoimmune disease that damages the epithelium of the bile ducts primary biliary cirrhosis
are asymptomatic while in the gallbladder gallstones
gallstones occur in approximately __ of the population 0.2
hepatocellular, obstructive, & hemolytic are the major types of jaundice
developing acutely in infants/children post mild viral infection; marked swelling of brain w/neurologic & liver dysfunction, possible jaundice Reye's syndrome
if a child with Reye's syndrome develops a fever & viral infection they must be given ___ instead of ___ to avoid liver damage & CNS disease acetaminophen; aspirin
most gallstone are composed of cholesterol
bile is stored in gallbladder & is a biological detergent emulsifying fat so that it can be more readily digested by pancreatic enzymes
is less efficient without bile digestion