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Geriatrics #4 review

geriatrics #4 dig, urin, repro,nerve,endo,and drug therapy

changes in digestive system for the following .
saliva production decreased swallowing difficulties
tooth enamel and what it causes thinner risk for cavities/staining enamel
peristalsis and what it causes wave like muscle contraction that passes fooddysphasia and constipation
liver finction and what it causes decrease functionenyzymes increase drop toxicity
hiatal hernia and lifestyle treatment stomach protrudes up through the diaphram gastric contents come up GERD decreased sphincter muscle
gastric mucosa and what this can cause mucosa thins increase risk for ulcers peptic ulcer
gastric secretions and what this can cause decrease difficult or slow digestion or indigestion
Know the following changes in the urinary system .
bladder capacity decreases
spincter control decreases
kidney filtration and it affects drug excretion filtration decreases decreased nephrons increase toxicity
risk of UTI increase risk not able to rid of toxinsincontinent inability to control bowel or bladder
what is stress in continence inability to control bladder due to coughing sneezing laughing running jumping
Know the following reproductive changes .
menopause cessation of ovulation/menses for 1yr with no apparent cause not able to sleep dryness 42-58
uterine and ovarian size function both atrophy and get smaller decreased function during menopause
vaginal walls thinner, drier, causes atropic vaginitis
prostate gland enlarges, BPH
what is atropic vaginitis vaginal wall atrophy and thinwalls get thinner/drier cause burning,itching,irratation,painful intercourse
what is BPH enlarged prostate non cancerous due to aging
what are the symptoms of BPH urgency,decrease strength of stream,difficulty starting urination, dribbling, painful urination
what increases the risk of DM in the elderly patient decrease insulin from decrease pancreas function increases the risk of diabetes (DM)
how is DM treated insulin,diet control,exercise, wt. loss, oral hypoglycemia to stimulate pancreas, occurs in ger pt cause pancreas does not produce as much insulin
what happens to the number of neurons (nerve cells) decreases
what condition does decreased nerve cells cause blood flow decrease, contributes to fine tremors, memory loss
what happens to blood flow to the brain decreases
what conditions does decrease blood flow memory loss, CVA/TIA
what causes alzheimer's disease most common form of senile dementia
what affects drug absorbtion and distribution in the elderly decrease kidney filtration,liver function,increase drug levels in blood flow
list 3 interventions to help decrease the risk of grug toxicity decrease drug doses,check drug levels periodically, assess liver and kidney function prior to precribing the drug
know the defination of polypharmacy inappropriate and excessive drug/medication use in the elderly
what common GI side effects are caused by many medications nausea,vomiting,diarrhea,constipation,indigestion,loss of appetite
remember that side effects of drugs can look like symptoms of a disease and symptoms of a disease can look like side effects this can make it difficult to diagnose elderly patients
also remember that the elderly experience twice as many side effects from medications as younger people example-coumadin-check with blood work
Created by: vinnydog