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# Thermodynamics II

### Entropy/Free Energy

First Law of Thermodynamics the energy of the universe is constant
Second Law of Thermodynamics the universe tends toward disorder; the entropy of the universe is increasing
Third Law of Thermodynamics the entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 K is 0; a perfect crystal represents the lowest possible entropy because it has a highly regular structure = only ONE possible configuration
How does temperature affect entropy? as the temperature increases, so does entropy (increasing temp increases the random motions/disorder)
When will an increase in temp/energy have a greater impact? increase in temp/energy has a greater impact on something that started with a lower energy
What affect does pressure have on entropy? as pressure increases, entropy decreases. higher pressure = higher entropy
What point will a reaction usually stop at? equilibrium, because it is the lowest possible free energy point
What is Wmax? Wmax = G; maximum possible useful work obtainable from a process at constant temp/pressure; equal to the change in free energy
What is deltaG? the amount of free energy available to do useful work; deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS
What is "wasted" energy? energy that is used doing something other than work, such as used in frictional heating
Reversible Process process that can be performed forward and in reverse, and end up w/ the universe exactly the same as it was before the process began; can only occur hypothetically
Irreversible Process universe is different after cyclic process is performed; system returns to its original state, but surrounds has to furnish a net amount of work; all real processes are irreversible
How does the energy crisis relate to entropy? when gas+O2 combust, the energy in bonds spreads over the surroundings as thermal energy instead of being concentrated; the thermal energy is harder to use. the energy has become more disordered (increase in entropy) and less useful (energy crisis)
deltaS of surroundings deltaS of surroundings = -deltaH / T in K
Spontaneous Process occurs without outside intervention
Positional Probability depends on the number of positional microstates (spatial configurations) that yield a specific state
deltaS of universe deltaS of universe = deltaS of system + deltaS of surroundings; deltaS universe = -deltaG / T in K
Created by: nickyvee