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# DHYG Community

### Review of community for Nat Board

Question | Answer |
---|---|

study of health-related states in human populations and how these states are influenced by the environment and ways of living; | Epidemiology |

attribute(s) that increase the likelihood of developing a particular disease or negative health condition in the future | Risk Factor |

a disease of significantly greater prevalence than normal; more than the expected number of cases; a disease that spreads rapidly through a demographic segment of a population | Epidemic |

affecting a large proportion of the geographic population of a country, continent, people, or the world | Pandemic |

a portion of a specific population that, if properly selected, can provide meaningful information about the entire population. Used when researcher has time, money or resources | Sample |

used when access to the total population is not feasible; members of the available sample are numbered consecutively, and a table of random numbers is used for experimental and control group assignments | convenience sample |

decision to carry out an investigation using observations or data that have been collected in the past; | Retrospective study |

a quasi-experimental study that looks at a phenomenon at one point in time | cross sectional study |

investigation of the same group of individuals over an extended period of time to identify a change or development in that group | longitudinal study |

measures what it is intended to measure | validity |

measures consistently at different times; reproducibility, stability of measurement | reliability |

DMFT | decayed, missing, filled teeth index |

deft index | indicates treatment received for decay (filling needs met) |

CRI index | root caries |

GI Index | Gingival index, A score of 0 to 3 assigned to 4 gingival scoring units: mesial, distal, buccal, & lingual surfaces of teeth. A periodontal probe, is used to assess bleeding potential. Totaling scores around each tooth yields GI score for area |

PDI index | Periodontal Disease index ;used to measure the presence and severity of periodontal disease; measures reversible and irreversible disease including gingivitis |

CPITN index | Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs; Facilitates rapid assessment of mean disease status of a population of various grades of periodontal involvement |

OHI-S index | Simplified Oral Hygiene Index; a reversible index used to measure oral hygiene status from good to poor oral hygiene |

what is the supplemental fluoride dosage for 0-6 months of age to 3 years of age for <0.3 to .3 ppm | .025 mg |

what is the supplemental fluoride dosage for 3-6 years of age for<0.03 ppm? for .3ppm? | .50mg and .25mg |

what is the supplemental fluoride dosage for 6-16 years of age for<0.03 ppm? for .3ppm? | 1.0mg, .50mg |

what percentage of sodium fluoride concentration is used in a weekly rinse? | 0.2 percent |

what percentage of sodium fluoride concentration is used in a daily rinse? | sodium fluoride 0.05 percent concentration is used daily |

What is the equivalent solution of Stannous Fluoride rinse to the sodium fluoride .05 daily rinse? | 0.1 percent stannous fluoride is equally effective |

What percentage of fluoride ingestion can cause acute toxicity in NaF? | 1 liter of .2% NaF |

a snapshot estimate of the defined population at a point in time | survey |

method of sampling used to represent subgroups proportionately in the sample when they are known to exist in the population | stratified sample |

sample achieved by drawing every nth subject from a list or file of the total population; considered to be random if the list or file is in random order | systematic sample |

sample group in a study that is exposed to the experimental variable under study; a group who receives the independent variable | experimental group |

sample group in an experiment that does not receive the experimental treatment (independent variable) but rather receives a placebo treatment, traditional treatment, or no treatment at all | control group |

methodology used in any type of research involving procedures that increase the likelihood that information gathered will be relevant, reliable, and unbiased” | scientific method |

sum of the values (∑x) divided by the number of items | Mean |

point of a distribution with 50 percent of the scores falling above it and 50 percent of the scores falling below it; arrange scores of distribution in ascending order of magnitude and locate the midpoint | Median |

determined by observing the most frequently occurring score in a distribution | Mode |

the spread between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution | Range |

statistical measure for determining the strength of the linear relationship between two or more variables | correlation |

value of one variable increases as the value of the second variable also increases; | Positive correlation, perfect positive correlation is a +1.0 |

inverse relationship between two variables | Negative correlation; perfect negative correlation is a -1.0 |

hypothesis that assumes that there are no statistically significant differences between the population groups; hypothesis being tested | Null hypothosis |

based on statistical results, the researcher rejects the null hypothesis and concludes that a statistically significant difference exists when in fact no true difference is present; rejecting a null hypothesis that is true | Type I error (alpha) |

esearcher concludes that no statistically significant difference exists and accepts the null hypothesis when in fact a significant difference does exist; accepting a null hypothesis that is false | Type II error (beta) |

f probability is less than ?, the results obtained are reported as statistically significant | .05 (p < 0.05) |

Factor of more than ? indicates data are not significantly different | .05 (p > 0.05) |

statistical test for determining if a statistically significant difference exists between observed frequencies and expected frequencies; used to analyze discrete, nominally scaled data; has two applications | Chi-square test |

two-dimensional diagram used to pictorially display nominal or ordinally scaled data that are discrete in nature | bar graph |

line graph used to represent data that are continuous in nature | Frequency polygon |

type of bar graph used to represent interval- or ratio-scaled variables that are continuous in nature | Histogram |

used to display parts of a whole | Pie Graph |

based on the concept that one's beliefs direct behavior; emphasis is placed on the perceived world of the individual, which may differ from an objective reality | Health Belief model |

public health officials are predicting a serious and potentially deadly new flu virus for the fall-winter season in North America, what is the correct term for this prediction? | Epidemic |

a dental hygiene student, decides to monitor all allied health science students on campus to determine how many students become ill with the flu during the fall term. This best describes what principles of research? | Incidence |

A DH student obtains the the email list of all 550 students enrolled in the health science dept. She assigns a number to each student consecutively and uses a table of random numbers to select 150 participants. This type of sampling technique is called? | Convenience sampling |

The caries rates for migrant children were most likely reported using which indices: | deft, which measures past and current caries activity in the primary dentition. |

What is the best index for assessing periodontal status on a Native American reservation? | CPI, which measures gingival bleeding, calculus, and periodontal pockets. |

The scores are: 1, 2, 2, 4, and 4. What is the mean Dental Fluorosis Index score for the children? | 2.6. It is obtained by adding all five scores to equal 13, and then dividing by 5 (the number of scores). |

If the mean score for Dental Fluorosis Index is 2.6 what would that indicate? | the range of scores is 2.0 to 3.0, which indicates marked fluorosis. |

A director needs documentation on the oral hygiene status of the adult population receiving care at a clinic. What is the best way to evaluate oral hygiene status in population groups for dental & nondental groups? | OHI-S This reversible index evaluates oral debris and dental calculus. |

you decide to select a group of clients by using a computer program that selects 10 percent of the entire client population of record enrolled at the clinic. This sample selection strategy best describes: | This sample selection strategy best describes a random sample. Subjects are chosen independently of each other. |

200 persons with oral cancer & 200 without oral cancer provide their consent to participate in a study. Information is collected about past exposure to a group of variables suspected of being responsible for the disease. What type of study is this? | Case control -a study that starts with predefined groups (one with and one without a particular condition) that already differ on a variable; the researcher tries to look back into history to try to determine variables related to the present differences. |

What is the recommended supplemental dietary fluoride dosage for children six months to three years of age with fluoridation at <.03ppm? | the local water supply is fluoridated at < 0.3 ppm, so an appropriate dosage would be 0.25 mg/daily. |

What are the option(s) for a school-based mouthrinse program? | Sodium fluoride in 0.2 percent concentration given weekly or Sodium fluoride in 0.05 percent concentration given daily |

What is the recommended supplemental dietary fluoride dosage for children six months to three years of age with fluoridation at <.03ppm? | the local water supply is fluoridated at < 0.3 ppm, so an appropriate dosage would be 0.25 mg/daily. |

What are the option(s) for a school-based mouthrinse program? | Sodium fluoride in 0.2 percent concentration given weekly or Sodium fluoride in 0.05 percent concentration given daily |

Created by:
Angie Heflin