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Unit 5

kinds of pain

The air sacs within the lungs that contain the region where gas exhange takes place? Alveoli
A decrease in the oxygen-carrying red blood cell component of the blood. Anemia
Chest pain occurring as a result of inadequate oxgen supply to the heart muscle. Usually associated with blockages in the heart arteries. Angina
An x-ray test in which dye is injected into an artery to detect narrowing or blockage in the vessel. A coronary angiogram looks at the arteries supplying the heart muscle. Angiogram
Opening of a blocked blood vessel via a catheter. Angioplasty
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Artery
Narrowing or blocking of arteries by cholesterol or other fats and other fibrous tissue resulting in reduced blood flow. Atherosclerosis
Enlargement of the heart. Cardiomegaly
General term meaning there is something wrong with the function of the heart muscle. If the cause is not known, the term idiopathic cardiomyopathy is used. Cardiomyopathy
The determination of the quantity of each type of blood cell in a given sample of blood, often including the amount of hemoglobin, the hematocrit, and the proportions of various white cells. Also called blood profile. CBC (Complete Blood Count)
One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules. These blood vessels form an intricate network throughout the body for the interchange of various substances, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, between blood and tissue cells. Capillaries
Partial or complete blockage of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle. Coronary Artery Disease
Relaxation and filling of the heart ventricles. Diastole
Difficulty breathing. Dyspnea
A noninvasive test that uses reflected sound waves off the heart to determine its size, structure, and function. Echocardiogram
Fluid accumulation in the tissues usually due to excessive pressure in the blood vessels. Edema
Fluid that leaks into the tissues of the extremities causing swelling. Edema, Peripheral
Fluid that leaks into the lungs causing congestion. Edema, Pulmonary
The amount of blood leaving the heart with each contraction. The amount ejected is measured as a fraction of the total amount of blood in the heart at the beginning of contraction. Normal is 55-75%. Ejection Fraction
A test to check the electrical activity of the heart, including its rhythm, evidence of enlargement, or the presence of a prior or recent heart attack. This test is also called an ECG or an EKG. Electrocardiogram
Accumulation of fluid in the lungs resulting from failure of the left ventricle. Heart Failure, Congestive
Failure of the pumping action of the left side of the heart resulting in congestion of the lungs or low heart output. Heart Failure, Left
Failure of the pumping action of the right ventricle resulting in peripheral (systemic) edema or low heart output. Heart Failure, Right
The iron-containing oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells of vertebrates Hemoglobin
High blood pressure. Hypertension
Enlargement of the heart muscle due to the formation of new tissue. Hypertrophy
Insufficient blood flow to an organ or tissue. Ischemia
Medical term for a heart attack. Death of heart muscle occurs due to inadequate blood flow and oxygen supply. Myocardial Infarction
Medical term for the heart muscle. Myocardium
In AF this orderly sequence of events is interrupted. As a result, the heart quivers or fibrillates (beats faster and irregularly), Atrial Fibrillation
People with AF are five (5) times more likely to have a stroke. AF causes the heart to lose efficiency. Atrial Fibrillation
The irregular beating of the atria and ventricles means the volume of blood pumped with each heartbeat varies causing pooling, stagnation and thickening of the blood. Atrial Fibrillation
This thickening (coagulation) forms blood clots that can travel from the heart to the brain causing an embolic stroke. Atrial Fibrillation
An anticoagulant drug called warfarin (Coumadin) is given. Anticoagulants are a group of drugs used to treat and prevent abnormal blood clotting. Atrial Fibrillation
This is a disease of the arterial wall in which the layer thickens, causing narrowing of the channel and thus, impairing blood flow. Atherosclerosis
A localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessels, usually caused by atherosclerosis and hypertension, or less frequently, by trauma, infection, or a congenital weakness in the vessel wall Aneurysms
the removal of plaque from coronary arteries and vein grafts. the removal of plaque from coronary arteries and vein grafts.
A slower than normal heart rate. Bradycardia
Fifty-five to 60 beats per minute would be considered for an adult. Bradycardia
An inflammation or infection of the endocardium, which is the inner lining of the heart muscle and, most commonly, the heart valves. It is usually caused by bacterial infection, but can be caused by fungus. Endocarditis
This is an irregular rhythm of the heartbeat. Heart Arrhythmia
The medical term for low blood pressure, generally considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or less in an adult. Hypotension
A form of low blood pressure in which dizziness or faintness occurs when a person stands up abruptly from a sitting or reclining position. Normally, when an individual stands up, the blood vessels constrict to maintain normal blood pressure in the new pos Postural (orthostatic) Hypotension
A term that describes chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia - a condition in which the amount of oxygen getting to the heart muscle is insufficient. It usually occurs on exertion and is relieved by rest. Angina Pectoris
When the heart is pumping the blood, it is called systolic pressure.
When the heart is resting or in between beats, your blood pressure falls; this is the diastolic pressure
As the blood pressure in the brain increases, damage can occur in the lining of blood vessels Stroke
The weakened areas in the blood vessel that may balloon or rupture Aneurysms
This inflammatory condition involving the myocardium (heart muscle). Myocarditis
An artificial device to electrically assist in pacing the heart so that the heart may pump blood more effectively. Pacemakers
This inflammation of the pericardium, the membrane forming the outer covering of the heart. Pericarditis
A general term to describe the inflammation of a vein. Very often, the inflammation is accompanied by formation of a clot (thrombus), which occludes the blood flow through the vein. Phlebitis
A blockage of a pulmonary artery (major blood vessel in the lung) by a fragment of material. Pulmonary Embolism
Single or repeated episodes of rheumatic fever can lead to chronic rheumatic heart disease. Heart disease.
is a bacterial infection that produces growths on the endocardium (the cells lining the inside of the heart). Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
This occurs occurs when the arterial blood flow leading to or in the brain becomes blocked or ruptures. Stroke
The medical term for fainting Syncope
This is a brief lapse in consciousness caused by transient cerebral hypoxia (diminished oxygen). Syncope
A condition in which there is a deficient number of circulating platelets. Thrombocytopenia
The acquired form is more common, especially among elderly. In either case, it usually results from decreased or defective production of platelets in the bone marrow Thrombocytopenia
malignant disorder (a form of cancer) that involves the bone marrow and blood systems. Leukemia results in the uncontrolled growth of abnormal (leukemic) white blood cells. Leukemia
The normal blood production from bone marrow? Hematopoiesis
Thrombocytopenia may also occur transiently after a viral infection or infectious mononucleosis, such as? Epstein-Barr
Another form of thrombocytopenia whichan autoimmune disorder. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
A contagious viral illness caused by the Epstein Barr virus that initially attacks the lymph nodes in the neck and throat. Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a member of what family? Herpes virus
The inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart? Pericarditis
The inflammation of the heart muscle is called? Myocarditis
The inflammation of the brain is called? Encephalitis
The destruction of the red blood cells is called? Hemolytic anemia
White blood cells are also called? Lymphocytes
The oxygen-carrying pigment found in red blood cells Hemoglobin
This medical term means less than adequate iron levels in the body. Iron Deficiency
A low red blood cell count Anemia
This is the iron-carrying protein found in red blood cells that binds to oxygen. Hemoglobin
This anemia is an inherited blood disease which can cause episodes of pain, damage to vital organs, and for some, death in childhood or early adulthood. Sickle Cell
This is one of the B-complex vitamins. Folic acid
This deficiency is usually caused by an inadequate intake of folic acid, a vitamin mainly supplied by the fresh green leafy vegetables, mushrooms, lima beans and kidney beans. Folic acid
This is the body's defense system. Immune System
This disease refers to abnormalities of the arteries that carry oxygen and other nutrients to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease
This initial technique to widen narrowed coronary arteries by inflating a small balloon catheter at the site of the narrowing. Angioplasty
also known as a myocardial infarction (MI), generally occurs when there is a blockage of blood flow to the heart, resulting in the heart not recieving the oxygen and nutrients it needs. Heart attack,
The injection of dye into the arteries followed by x-ray). Angiography
This disease refers to overall enlargement (dilatation) of the heart chambers, especially the ventricles. Dilated cardiomyopathy
This overgrowth of heart muscle that can impair blood flow both into and out of the heart. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
The heart muscle is too stiff to allow blood in from the pulmonary veins Restrictive cardiomyopathy
This procedure of inserting a thin, hollow tube into a blood vessel in the leg, (or, rarely the arm), then passing it into or around the heart in order to obtain information about cardiovascular anatomy and function. Cardiac Catheterization
A painless condition, but patients may experience a chronic, dull, heavy sensation in the leg, and most often patients are concerned about the appearance of the leg. Lymphedema
An operation in which cardiac surgeons remove part of the blood vessel (graft) from somewhere else in the body, and attach it to a narrowed or blocked coronary artery. Heart Bypass Surgery
When a high-energy electrical impulse is used to stop fast, abnormal heartbeats. The shock restores the heart's normal rhythm. Defibrillator
A group of conduction fibers that descend from the atrioventricular (AV) node to the bundle branches. Bundle of His
The nerve pathways that supply the electrical stimulation to the left and right sides of the heart. Bundle branches
The specialized network of cells in the heart that initiates an electrical signal in the heart and carries it throughout the heart, causing it to beat. Cardiac conduction system
The amount of blood circulating throughout the body, typically about 5 liters for an adult Blood volume
The force exerted by the heart in pumping blood; the pressure of blood in the arteries Blood pressure
A physician trained in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heart disease Cardiologist
A chronic disorder that causes the muscle of the heart to become weakened and not work as efficiently as it should. Cardiomyopathy
Arteries in your neck that supply blood to the brain Carotid arteries
A condition that reduces the blood flow through the carotid arteries to the brain Carotid artery disease
A blood clot formed in one part of the body and then carried by the bloodstream to the brain, where it blocks an artery. Cerebral embolism
Bleeding from an artery in the brain, caused by a head injury or a burst aneurysm. Cerebral hemorrhage
A blood clot (thrombus) that forms and blocks blood flow in an artery that supplies blood to part of the brain. It is the most common cause of stroke. Cerebral thrombosis
A condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the other organs. Also known as heart failure. Congestive heart failure (CHF
The blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the aorta to the heart muscle Coronary arteries
A plug composed of a detached thrombus or mass of bacteria that occludes a blood vessel. Embolus
Obstruction or occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus. Embolism
The inner layer of heart tissue that lines the chambers. Endocardium
The outside surface of the heart. Epicardium
A protein in the blood that enmeshes blood cells and other substances during blood clotting Fibrin
A condition in which the contractions in the upper or lower chambers of the heart become extremely rapid (but regular). A patient may or may not feel Flutter
Insufficient blood flow to and oxygen deprivation of tissue, usually due to constriction or obstruction of an artery. Ischemia
A heart ailment caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries and characterized by a decreased blood supply to the heart. Also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease Ischemic heart disease
The heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Mitral valve
Death of an area of heart tissue due to a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium). Myocardial infarction
Symptoms may include nausea, shortness of breath, and pain in the chest, arm, or neck. Also called a heart attack. Myocardial infarction
The middle and thickest layer of the heart. It contracts to pump blood out of the heart and then relaxes as the heart refills with returning blood. Myocardium
Inflammation of the pericardium, the membranous sac that surrounds the heart. Pericarditis
A fibrous sac surrounding the heart and roots of the great blood vessels Pericardium
One of three kinds of formed elements found in blood that aids in the clotting of the blood. Platelet
The artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs Pulmonary artery
An embolism that lodges in the pulmonary artery or its branches Pulmonary embolism
The four veins that drain oxygenated blood from the lungs and deliver it to the left atrium. Pulmonary veins
The heart valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve
The small area in the right atrium that starts the electrical impulse that is transmitted through the heart, causing it to beat. Sinoatrial (SA) node
This node is often called the natural pacemaker of the heart. Sinoatrial (SA) node
The normal rhythm of the heart, initiated in the SA node. Sinus rhythm
A brief period of unconsciousness caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain Syncope
A blood clot that forms inside a blood vessel or cavity of the heart. If the blood clot breaks away, it becomes an embolus Thrombus
A blood vessel that carries blood from the body toward the heart. Vein
Either of two large veins that return blood to the right atrium of the heart. Vena cava
This vessel returns blood from the head, neck and chest. Superior vena cava
This vessel returns blood from the legs and abdomen. Inferior vena cava
One of the two lower chambers of the heart Ventricle
This ventricle sends unoxygenated blood to the lungs. Right
ventricle passes blood carrying oxygen to the rest of the body Left
The heartbeat is so fast that the heart does not have time to pump enough blood to the brain and body tissue, which may cause unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and death. Ventricular fibrillation (VF)
These are the main pumping chambers of the heart and they contract at the same time Ventricle
The rapid heartbeat can produce symptoms of fainting, dizziness, weakness, blind spots, and potentially, unconsciousness and cardiac arrest. Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
the clumping together of red cells Agglutination
A pt has weakness, fatigue, and paleness resulting from a deficiency of red blood cells Anemia
The insufficient amounts of hemoglobin molecules within the red cells. Anemia
The the yellow-red pigment of human bile Bilirubin
At high levels, blood and urine change color and the skin becomes yellow Bilirubin
This is one of the symptoms of mismatched blood transfusions Bilirubin
The relatively large red cells in blood that transport oxygen from the lungs to all of the living tissues of the body Erythrocytes
The gas transporting protein molecule that normally makes up 95% of the volume of red cells in blood Hemoglobin
The condition in which the eyes, skin, and/or urine become unusually yellowish as a result of the build up of bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice
The relatively clear liquid medium in blood which carries the red cells, white cells, and platelets. Plasma
Thrombocytes are also called Platelets
A substance that prevents the clotting or thickening of Blood. Anticoagulant
The process of making antibodies against one’s self (one’s intrinsic antigens). Autoimmune
Autologous Blood (donation) is Blood drawn from one individual to be given back to that individual, or a close very Blood match designee, as the need for transfusion arises Autologous Blood
A clotting factor that stabilizes Blood clots Factor XIII
Contains extra clotting factor used to control bleeding in hemophiliacs. Factor VIII Rich Cryoprecipitate
A protein involved in coagulation. Fibrinogen reacts with other molecules to produce Blood clots. Fibrinogen
The red and white Blood cells and platelets found in whole Blood. Formed Elements
A type of white Blood cell that attacks and destroys foreign substances. These are leukocytes which have specific granules Granulocytes
The percentage of packed red Blood cells found in a unit volume of whole Blood. Hematocrit
The process of formation, development, and differentiation of the formed elements of whole Blood. Hematopoiesis
The process of clotting Hemostasis
A condition of characterized by low body temperature. Hypothermia
Low oxygen levels in the Blood Hypoxemia
An autoimmune disease where the body makes antibodies against its own platelets. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
The body’s own white Blood cells or leukocytes (WBC’s) fight disease and maintain immune function in the Blood Leukocyte
A condition characterized by an abnormally high total number of circulating leukocytes Leukocytosis
A condition characterized by an abnormally low total number of circulating leukocytes Leukopenia
A leukocyte that directs the formation of antibodies, and that has memory Lymphocytes
Prothrombin time. A test of the Blood clotting system and a general test of the liver's capacity to synthesize needed Blood proteins. Protime (PT)
Bruising associated with receiving a Blood transfusion (may occur on the skin or mucous membranes). Purpura
Blood cells (erythrocytes) which appear as biconcave disks, lack nuclei and comprise the largest number of cells of the formed elements of whole Blood Red Cells (RBCs)
cells transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide. Red cells contain iron in the hemoglobin. Red Cells (RBCs)
A nonspecific measure of inflammatory response anywhere in the body; this test is elevated (above the normal range) in infections and a wide variety of so-called inflammatory diseases, for example rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or inflammatory bowel disease Sedimentation Rate (Sed Rate)
A low platelet count. Thrombocytopenia
A disease state in which red Blood cells and platelets are destroyed and the body produces excessive Blood clots which may damage the kidneys and nervous system. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Refers to the effect of thinning of the Blood by a medication known as warfarin or coumadin. Warfarin Effect
a rapidly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many immature (not fully formed) lymphocytes. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
a rapidly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many immature (not fully formed) granulocytes, Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
This inherited blood disorder affecting the alpha chains of the hemoglobin molecule. Alpha thalassemia
type of anemia that occurs when the bone marrow produces too few of all three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Aplastic anemia
This inherited blood disorder affecting the beta chains of the hemoglobin molecule. Beta thalassemia
The fluid part of blood that contains nutrients, glucose, proteins, minerals, enzymes, and other substances Blood plasma
A slowly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many lymphocytes are produced by the bone marrow chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
A slowly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
The lack of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) in the blood. Folate deficiency
nutrient found in some green leafy vegetables, nuts, beans, citrus fruits, fortified breakfast cereals, and some vitamin supplements Folic acid
This acid can help reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Folic acid
This type of white blood cell. The different types of granulocytes include: basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Granulocytes
The process of producing and developing new blood cells. Hematopoiesis
A type of anemia in which the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely. Hemolytic anemia
This inherited bleeding disorder caused by low levels, or absence of, a blood protein that is essential for clotting Hemophilia
This disease is caused by a lack of the blood clotting protein factor VIII Hemophilia A
This is caused by a deficiency of factor IX Hemophilia B
Steady enlargement of lymph glands, spleen, and other lymphatic tissue occurs. Hodgkin's disease
This disease causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally reproduce, eventually making the body less able to fight infection Hodgkin's disease
A cancer of the blood-forming tissue Leukemia
A thin, clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic vessels and carries blood cells that fight infection and disease. Lymph
A bean-shaped organs, found in the underarm, groin, neck, and abdomen, that act as filters for the lymph fluid as it passes through them. Lymph nodes
A thin tubes that carry lymph fluid throughout the body. Lymph vessels
This part of the immune system; includes lymph, ducts, organs, lymph vessels, lymphocytes, and lymph nodes, whose function is to produce and carry white blood cells to fight disease and infection. Lymphatic system
White blood cells that fight infection and disease. Lymphocytes
A type of leukemia in which the cancer develops in the lymphocytes (lymphoid cells). Lymphocytic leukemia
A type of anemia in which the body does not absorb enough Vitamin B-12 from the digestive tract. Pernicious anemia
Tiny red dots under the skin that are the result of very small bleeds. Petechia
The watery, liquid part of the blood in which the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and platelets are suspended. Plasma
Cells found in the blood that are needed to control bleeding; often used in the treatment of leukemia and other forms of cancer. Platelets
A blood disorder where there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly red blood cells. Polycythemia vera
The main function is to transport oxygen to all the tissues in the body RBCs or erythrocytes
This inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin Sickle cell anemia
This inherited blood disorder in which the chains of the hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues) molecule are abnormal Thalassemia
This excess clotting which obstructs veins (venous thrombosis) and arteries (arterial thrombosis). Thrombosis
These blood cells involved in the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. WBCs or leukocytes
The pus in a boil (abscess) is made up mostly of Neutrophils.
A serious bacterial infection causes the body to produce an increased number of neutrophils, resulting in a higher than normal WBC count
Neutrophils are Leukocytes White blood cells
Neutrophils perform their function partially through. Phagocytosis
A process by which they "eat" other cells and foreign substances. Phagocytosis
These cell are characterised by large redcytoplasmic granules Eosinophil
These are prominent at sites of allergic reactions and with parasitic larvae infections Eosinophil
are responsible for the symptoms of allergy and inflamation which release histamine and heparin. Basophil
Monocytes migrate into tissues and develop into what? Macrophages
A large white blood cell , derived from monocytes which serve the purpose of ingesting and destroying microbes, antigens and other foreign substances Macrophages
These cells identify foreign substances and germs (bacteria or viruses) in the body and produce antibodies and cells that specifically target them. Lymphocyte
Food sources of this Vitamin include meat, eggs, milk, and yeast. B12
The chamber of the heart that collects blood returning from the rest of the body Atrium
Back-flow of blood through an insufficient valve. (For example, mitral valve regurgitation.) Regurgitation
This type of anemia caused by a sudden loss of a large amount of blood. Hemorrhagic anemia
The destruction of red blood cells by the body. Hemolysis
The pain that occurs when the flow of blood is blocked to an area because the sickled cells are stuck in a blood vessel. Sickle crisis
This protein helps to combat infection on a normal level. It is the total protein value minus albumin value. Globulin
Any drug or other therapy that lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive
The veins that carry blood back from the head to the heart. Jugular Veins
The wall dividing the right and left atria. Atrial Septum
A bacterial infection of the heart lining or valves. Individuals with abnormal heart valves or congenital heart defects are at increased risk of developing bacteria Bacterial Endocarditis
A mass of blood tissue formed by clotting factors in the blood. Clots stop the flow of blood from an injury, can form inside an artery whose walls are damaged by atherosclerotic build-up, and can cause a heart attack or stroke. Blood Clot
A device that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood Pulse oximeter
A tiredness or pain in the arms and legs caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen to the muscles, usually due to narrowed arteries. Claudication
Blood flow through small, nearby vessels in response to blockage of a main blood vessel. Collateral Circulation
Blueness of skin caused by insufficient oxygen in the blood. Cyanosis
A blood clot in the deep vein in the calf. Deep vein thrombosis
A drug that strengthens the contraction of the heart muscle, slows the rate of contraction of the heart and promotes the elimination of fluid from the body tissues when heart failure is present Digitalis (Digoxin, Digitoxin)
A drug that lowers blood pressure by stimulating fluid loss; promotes urine production. Diuretic
The breaking up of a blood clot. Thrombosis
A blood clot located in a blood vessel or cavity of the heart. Thrombus
Created by: Nerd