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Concept Dis. Ch.19

The Urinary System

steroid hormone produced by adrenal cortex that regulates rate of sodium absorption from renal tubules aldosterone
component of reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, formed from interaction of renin with angiotensinogen angiotensin
enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II angiotensin-converting enzyme
blood protein converted to angiotensin I by renin secreted by the kidneys angiotensinogen
accumulation of fluid in abdominal cavity ascites
cuplike expanded end of nephron that surrounds the tuft of glomerular capillaries Bowman's capsule
stone formed within the body, as in kidney or gallbladder calculus
test of renal function that measures ability of kidneys to remove/clear a substance from the blood & excrete it in the urine clearance test
waster product derived from breakdown of a compound present in muscle (phosphocreatine) that is excreted in the urine creatinine
inflammation of the bladder cystitis
humoral substance made by kidneys that regulates hematopoiesis erythropoietin
thin membrane covering filtration slit between pedicels of podocytes that cover the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys filtration membrane
narrow spaces between pedicels of podocytes that cover glomerular capillaries of kidneys filtration slits
highly branches cytoplasmic processes of podocytes covering glomerular capillaries of kidneys foot processes
inflammation of glomeruli caused by either antigen-antibody complexes trapped in glomeruli, or by antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies glomerulonephritis
diffuse & nodular thickening of glomerular basement membranes, a common occurrence in patients with long-standing diabetes glomerulosclerosis
disorder of nucleoprotein metabolism characterized by elevated uric acid & deposition of uric acid in & around joints. gout
dialysis procedure by which waste products are removed from the blood of patients in chronic renal failure, usually by means of an artificial kidney machine hemodialysis
dilation of urinary drainage tract proximal to site of an obstruction hydronephrosis
accumulation of fluid in pleural cavity hydrothorax
dilation of ureter 2ndary to obstruction of urinary drainage system, often associated with coexisting dilatation of renal pelvis & calyces hydroureter
specialized group of cells at the vascular pole of the glomerulus that regulates blood flow through the glomerulus of kidneys juxtaglomerular apparatus
modified connective-tissue cells at vascular pole of glomerulus that hold capillary tuft together mesangial cell
glomerulus & renal tubule nephron
thickening & narrowing of afferent glomerular arterioles as a result of disease nephrosclerosis
generalized edema resulting from excessive protein loss in urine, caused by various types of renal disease nephrotic syndrome
one of the small terminal processes of podocytes that cover glomerular capillaries pedicel
wavelike contractions of the wall of alimentary tract that propel contents through the bowel peristalsis
bacterial infection of kidney & renal pelvis pyelonephritis
intense flank pain radiating into groin, resulting from passage of a renal calculus into the ureter renal colic
humoral substance secreted by kidneys in response to fall in blood pressure, blood volume or sodium concentration renin
method for removing stones from urinary tract by breaking them into small bits that can be excreted in the urine shock wave lithotripsy
large renal calculus that has adopted configuration of renal pelvis & calyces where it formed staghorn calculus
kidney damage caused by precipitation of urate crystals within kidney tubules of person with gout urate nephropathy
nitrogen waste product derived from protein metabolism & excreted in the urine urea
excess of urea & other waste products in blood, resulting from renal failure uremia
commonly performed chemical & microscopic analysis of the urine urinalysis
retrograde flow of urine from bladders into ureter during voiding vesicoureteral reflux
there are approximately 1,000,000 __ in one kidney nephrons
renal agenesis, formation of extra ureters and renal pelvis, & malpositioned kidneys are all common congenital malformations
acute glomerulonephritis developing after a streptococcal infection results from a bacterial infection of the glomeruli
commonly accompanied by severe edema, ascites, or hydrothorax nephrotic syndrome
enlarging cysts within the kidneys eventually destroy kidney function, kidneys become greatly enlarged, most cases are caused by a mutation of PKD1, & may be complicated by infection or bleeding in kidney cysts congenital polycystic kidney disease
is a waste product excreted by the kidney & concentration of urea in the blood is elevated in patients with renal failure urea
diabetes mellitus, gout, & lupus erythematosus can potentially damage the kidneys
kidneys are damaged by decreased blood supply caused by thickening of the lumens in Arteriolar Nephrosclerosis
large volume of urine, acidity of urine, & complete evacuation of the bladder all defend naturally against urinary tract infections
chronic recurring scarring is the primary danger of pyelonephritis
surgical extraction, percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy, & extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are all modern methods of removing calculi from the kidneys
0.9 is the proportion of ___ kidneys surviving for longer than 5 years transplanted
can be self-administered, constantly filters the blood, & less disruption of lifestyles are all advantages of peritoneal dialysis
Edema, anemia, weakness & nausea are all symptoms of chronic uremia
urinalysis, clearance tests, x-ray exams, & cytoscopy are all common forms of detecting kidney disorders
chronic diffuse and nodular glomerulosclerosis with nephrosclerosis diabetic nephropathy
diabetic nephropathy is common in patients' with long-standing diabetes mellitus
urea is a waste product of protein metabolism
uremia would be found in a patient with advanced renal failure
glomerulonephritis is caused by immunologic glomerular injury
pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection involving the kidney & renal pelvis
nephritic syndrome is the same as glomerulonephritis
nephrosclerosis is the thickening and narrowing of glomerular arterioles
stasis of urine, an infection, &/or, stones predispose a person for a urinary tract infection