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MMTC MedTerm CH10-11

Miller Motte Medical Terminology Terms for the Eyes and Ears

water aque/o
eyelid blephar/o
conjunctiva (to join together) conjunctiv/o
cornea corne/o, kerat/o
circle, ciliary body cycl/o
colored circle, iris ir/o, irid/o
tear lacrim/o, dacry/o
eye ocul/o, ophthalm/o, opt/o
lens (lentil) phac/o, phak/o
light phot/o
old age presby/o
retina retin/o
hard or sclera scler/o
glassy vitre/o
condition of vision -opia (suffix)
watery liquid secreted by the ciliary processes that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens (humor = fluid) aqueous humor
mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball conjunctiva
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image cornea
movable, protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye eyelid
pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision (fovea = pit) fovea centralis
colored circle; colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil iris
gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears lacrimal gland
tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac lacrimal ducts
structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolacrimal duct lacrimal sac
transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina lens
central region of the retina; responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color (lutea = yellow) macula lutea
passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose nasolacrimal duct
exit site of retinal nerve fibers as well as entrance point for retinal arteries and exit point for retinal veins optic disk
nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain optic nerve
black, circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye pupil
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve retina
tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve sclera
jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye vitreous
double vision diplopia
abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs exophthalmos or exophthalmus
secretion of tears lacrimation
involuntary, rapid, oscillating movement of the eyeball (nystagmos = a nodding) nystagmus
extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light photophobia
blind spot in vision (skotos = darkness) scotoma
involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing blepharospasm
distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina (stigma = point) astigmatism
farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the retina hyperopia
nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays are focused on a point in front of the retina myopia
impaired vision caused by old age or loss of accommodation presbyopia
ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects accomodation
fibrous, wing-shaped growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea, developing most commonly from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light pterygium
separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically retinal detachment
a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance (strabismus = a squinting; hetero = other) strabismus
surgical repair of an eyelid blepharoplasty
excision of an eyeball enucleation
excision of a portion of iris tissue iridectomy
implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens (e.g., after cataract extraction) intraocular lens (IOL) implant
agent that causes dilation of the pupil; used for certain eye examinations mydriatic
agent that causes the pupil to contract (mio = less) miotic
air or gas aer/o
ear aur/i, ot/o
wax cerumin/o
eustachian tube or uterine tube salping/o
eardrum tympan/o, myring/o
hearing condition -acusis (suffix)
outer structures of the ear that collect sound external ear
auricle (little ear); projected part of the external ear (pinna = feather) pinna
external passage for sounds collected from the pinna to the tympanum external auditory meatus or canal
a waxy substance secreted by glands located throughout the external canal cerumen
structures in the middle of the ear that vibrate sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear middle ear
eardrum; drum-like structure that receives sound collected in the external auditory canal and amplifies it through the middle ear tympanic membrane
hammer; first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear malleus
anvil; middle of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear incus
stirrup; last of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear stapes
auditory tube connecting the middle ear to the pharynx (throat) eustachian tube, auditory tube
intricate, fluid-filled, intercommunicating bony and membranous passages that function in hearing by relaying sound waves to labyrinth auditory nerve fibers on a path to the brain for interpretation; also sense body movement and position to maintain balance
coiled tubular structure of the inner ear that contains the organ of Corti (cochlea = snail) cochlea
fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the inner ear perilymph
fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear endolymph
three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement semicircular canals
earache otalgia, otodynia
bleeding from the ear otorrhagia
purulent drainage from the ear otorrhea
a jingling; a ringing or buzzing in the ear tinnitus
a turning round; dizziness vertigo
inflammation of the external auditory meatus (canal) otitis externa
excessive buildup of wax in the ear that often reduces hearing acuity, especially in elderly persons cerumen impaction
inflammation of the eardrum myringitis
inflammation of the eardrum tympanitis
inflammation of the middle ear otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear from changes in atmospheric pressure; often occurs with frequent air travel aerotitis media
blockage of the eustachian tube, usually as a result of infection, as in otitis media eustachian obstruction
hardening of the bony tissue in the ear otosclerosis
benign tumor on the auditory nerve (8th cranial nerve) that causes vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss acoustic neuroma
inflammation of the labyrinth (inner ear) labyrinthitis
disorder of the inner ear resulting from an excessive buildup of endolymphatic fluid, causing episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and hearing loss; one or both ears can be affected, and attacks vary in both frequency and intensity Ménière disease
general term for partial or complete loss of hearing deafness
hearing impairment in old age presbyacusis
instrument to measure hearing audiometer
health professional who specializes in the study of hearing impairments audiologist
use of an otoscope to examine the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane otoscopy
acous/o, audi/o hearing
vein graft of a scarred tympanic membrane to improve sound conduction tympanoplasty
introduction of a medicated solution into the external canal, usually administered by drop (gt) or drops (gtt) in the affected ears. ear instillation
incision into the eardrum, most often for insertion of a small polyethylene (PE) tube to keep the canal open and prevent fluid buildup, such as occurs in otitis media myringotomy
surgical repair of the external ear otoplasty
an electronic device implanted in the cochlea that provides sound perception to patients with severe or profound sensorineural (nerve) hearing loss in both ears cochlear implant
irrigation of the external ear canal, often to remove excessive buildup of cerumen ear lavage
Created by: evinsmc