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Ch9 Med Term


Through, between, complete, apart dia-
Hernia, tumor, swelling -cele
Urinary bladder, cyst, sac or fluid cyst/o
Stretching, dialation, enlargement -ectasis
Glomerulus glomerul/o
Stone, calculus lith/o
Setting free, destruction -lysis
Kidney nephr/o
Surgical fixation -pexy
Renal pelvis, bowl of kidney pyel/o
Kidney ren/o
To crush -tripsy
Ureter ureter/o
Urethra urethr/o
Urination, urine -uria
A state of equilibrium that produces a constant internal enviornment throught the body homeostasis
Major waste product of protein metabolism urea
Pertaining to the kidneys renal
The outer layer of the kidney renal cortex
Inner layer that contrains most of the urine-collection tubules medulla
Functional units of the kidneys nephrons
Cluster of capillaries surrounded by a membrane called the Bowman's capsule glomerulus
The pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color. The color of urine can be influenced by normal factors such as the amount of liquid consumed or by diseases and medications urochrome
Narrow tubes, each 10 to 12 inches long. Each of these carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder ureters
A hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine. It is located in the anterior portion of the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis and stores about 1 pint of urine. In a pregnant woman, the uterus resting on the bladder may decrease its capacity urinary bladder
Tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body urethra
Ringlike muscle that closes a passageway sphincter
External opening of the urethra urethral meatus/urinary meatus
Approximately 1.5 inches long. The urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina. In the female, this conveys only urine female urethra
Approximately 8 inches long and the urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis. In the male, this conveys both urine and semen. The neck of it is surrounded by the prostate gland male urethra
Normal process of excreting urine. This requires the coordinated contration of the bladder muscles and relaxation of the sphincters. This forces the urine through the urethra and out through the urinary meatus. urination/micturition
Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys nephrologist
Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males urologist
Inability of the kidney or kidneys to perform their functions. The body cannot replace damaged nephrons. When too many nephrons have been destroyed, the result is kidney failure renal failure/kidney failure
Complete suppression (stopping) of urine formation by the kidneys anuria/anuresis
A toxic condition caused by excessive amount of urea and other waste products in the bloodstream. q uremia/uremic poisoning
Sudden onset and is characterized by uremia. This may be caused by many factors, including a drop in blood volume or blood pressure due to injury or surgery acute renal failure/ARF
Progressive disease that may be caused by a variety of conditions. When kidney function is insufficient, dialysis or transplantation is required chronic renal failure/CRF
Refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure end-stage renal disease/ESRD
General group of kidney diseases nephrotic syndrome
Excessive fluid in the body tissue edema
Abnormally high concentration of protein (albumin) in the urine hyperproteinuria
Abnormally low concentration of protein (albumin) in the blood hypoproteinemia
Abnormally large amount of lipids in the blood hyperlipidemia
Diseases of the kidney and these terms are used interchangeably with nephrotic syndrome nephrosis/nephropathy
Result of the damage to the kidney's capillary blood vessels that is caused by long-term diabetes mellitus diabetic nephropathy
An inflammation of the kidney involving primarily the glomeruli. In acute __, the urine is dark brown or black in color. This condition is often related to an autoimmune problem glomerulonephritis
The dialation (enlargement) of the renal pelvis of one or both kidneys. This is the result of an obstruction of the flow of urine hydronephrosis
The distention of a kidney nephrectasis
An inflammation of the kidney nephritis
The downward displacement of the kidney nephroptosis/"floating kidney"
Suppuration of the kidney nephropyosis
Formation or discharge of pus suppuration
An inflammation of the renal pelvis pyelitis
An inflammation of the renal pelvis and of the kidney pyelonephritis
An acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone renal colic
Abornmal mineral deposit. These vary in size from small sandlike granules to the size of marbles and are named for the organ or tissue where they are located stone/calculus
A disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney nephrolithiasis
Distention (stretching out) of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked hydroureter
Distention of a ureter ureterectasis
Discharge of blood from the ureter ureterorrhagia
A stricture of the ureter ureterostenosis
Abnormal band of tissue narrowing a body passage stricture
Pain in the urinary bladder cystalgia/cystodynia
An inflammation of the bladder cystitis
An inflammation within the wall of the bladder. This is a chronic condition with symptoms similar to those of cystitis interstitial cystitis
A hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall cystocele
Bleeding from the bladder cystorrhagia
Usually begin in the bladder. These infections occur more frequently in women because of the shortness of the urethra and the proximity of its opening to the vagina and rectum urinary tract infections/UTIs
An abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina vesicovaginal fissure
Blockage of the urethra can cause urine to back up into the ureters, called ___. This can eventually result in damage to the kidneys reflux
Pain in the urethra urethralgia
An inflammation of the urethra urethritis
Bleeding from the urethra urethrorrhagia
An abnormal discharge from the urethra urethrorrhea
The stricture or stenosis of the urethra urethrostenosis
In the male, is a congenital abnormality in which the urethral opening is located on the dorsal (upper surface) of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris epispadias
In the male, a congenital abormality in which the urethral opening is on the undersurface of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is into the vagina. hypospadias
A congential abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on one side of the penis paraspadias
Increased excretion of urine diuresis
Difficult or painful urination. This condition is frequently associated with UTIs dysuria
The involuntary discharge of urine enuresis
Involuntary discharge that occurs during sleep, bed-wetting nocturnal enuresis
Excessive urination during the night nocturia
Scanty urination oliguria
Excessive urination polyuria
The inability to void or empty the bladder urinary retention
The inability to control excretory functions incontinence
Inability to control the voiding of urine urinary incontinence
Inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing urinary stress incontinence
When urination occurs involuntarily as soon as an urgent desire to urinate is felt. This urge may be triggered by physical movement rather than by a full bladder urge incontinence
Insertion of a sterile catheter through the urethra and into the urinary bladder. This is most commonly performed to withdraw urine, relieve urinary retention pressures, or prevent incontinence during surgical procedures catheterization
Visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope cystoscopy/cysto
Used for treatment procedures such as the removal or tumors cystoscope
A radiographic (x-ray) study of the kidneys and ureters in which iodine is injected into a vein as a contrast medium to define these structures more clearly intravenous pyelogram/IVP
A radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without the use of a contrast medium. This study is also referred to as a flat-plate of the abdomen KUB
The radiographic visualization of the urinary tract with the use of a contrast medium. The resulting record is called a urogram intravenous urography
Named because it traces the action of the kidney as it processes and excretes dye injected into the bloodstream excretory urography
A radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract retrograde urography
A radiographic examination of the bladder after installation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter. The resulting film is called a cystogram cystography
May be performed after cystography. In this diagnostic procedure a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra voiding cystourethrography/VCUG
Examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements urinalysis
Medications administered to increase urine secretion to rid the body of excess sodium and water diuretics
Procedure to remove waste products from the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer function dialysis
Filters waste products from the patient's blood. A shunt implanted in the patient's arm is connected to the artificial kidney machine and areterial blood flows through the filters. After removed the blood is returned to the body through a vein hemodialysis/HD
A solution made up of water and electrolytes, which remove excess fluids and waste from the blood dialysate
The lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood. Dialysate is run into the peritoneal cavity and the fluid is exchanged through a catheter implanted in the abdominal wall. Used for renal failure and certain poisoning. peritoneal dialysis
Provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about daily activity. In this procedure dialysate is instilled from a plastic container worn under clothing. Every 6 to 8 hrs the used solution is drained back into bag and discarded. Continue process continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis/CAPD
Uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis/CCPD
The grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidney renal transplant/kidney transplant
Freeing of a kidney from adhesions or a pathologic condition in which there is the destruction of kidney substance nephrolysis
A band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally adhesions
Surgical fixation of a floating kidney nephropexy
Establishment of an opening between the pelvis of the kidney through its cortex to the exterior of the body nephrostomy
Surgical repair of the renal pelvis pyeloplasty
Surgical incision into the renal pelvis pyelotomy
Destruction of a kidney stone with the use of ultrasonic waves traveling through water lithotripsy/extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy/ESWL
Surgical removal of a kidney stone through an incision in the kidney nephrolithotomy
Surgical removal of a ureter ureterectomy
Surgical repair of a ureter ureteroplasty
Suture a ureter urterorrhaphy
Surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder cystectomy
Surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall cystopexy
Suturing of the bladder cystorrhapy
Surgical incision for the removal of a stone, usually from the bladder. This term is also used to describe a physical examination position lithotomy
An indwelling catheter placed into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone suprapubic catheter
Something that remains inside the body for a prolonged time indwelling
An incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening meatotomy
Surgical fixation of the urethra usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence urethropexy
Surgical repair of the urethra urethroplasty
Surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin urethrostomy
Surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture urethrotomy
Abnormal band of tissue narrowing a body passage stricture
Maintain proper balance of water, salts and acids in body fluids by removing excess fluids from body. Constantly filter blood to remove urea and waste materials. Convert wastes and excess fluids into urine and excrete them from the body. To achieve homeostasis in the urinary system: