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flashcards 1-5

Organelle a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function in the cell
Cell Wall supports and protects the cell
Cell Membrane a cell structure that controls which which substances can enter or leave the cell
Nucleus brain of the cell- control room
Chromatin material in cell that contains DNA and carries genetic info
Cytoplasm region between cell membrane and nucleus
Mitochondrian battery of the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum highway of the cell
Ribosome makes proteins
Golgi Body transports proteins mail system
Chloroplast captures energy from the sun: uses to produce food
Vacuole storage container- water balloon
Lysosome intestines of the cell- clears away waste
Element cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Atom smallest unit of an element
Compound 2 or more elements that are chemically combined
Molecule smallest form of matter
Organic Compound contains carbon
Inorganic Compound doesnt contain carbon
Carbohydrate energy-rich organic compounds- sugars and starches- made up of carbon, hydrogen, and, oxygen
Protein large organc compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
Amino Acid form proteins
Enzyme protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
Lipid fats and oils
Nucleic Acid DNA and RNA
DNA carries genetic info - passed on from parent to offspring
RNA plays an important role in the production of proteins
Selectively Permeable windowscreen-allows some things to pass through and others cannot
Diffusion molecules moving from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration
Osmosis diffusion of water
Passive Transport diffusion without using energy
Active Transport diffusion using energy
Photosynthesis how plants make food
Chlorophyll pigment found in chloroplasts, algae, and some bacteria
Stomata small whole in the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
Autotroph makes its own food
Heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food
Respiration process in which cells break down food molecules and releas their energy
Fermentation respiration without using oxygen
Cell Cycle the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Mitosis cell splits and becomes two new cells
Chromatid one of the identical rods of a chromosome
Interphase cell grows, copies DNA, and prepares to divide
Chromosome double rod of condensed chromatin- carries genetic info
Cytokinesis final stage of mitosis where the cell splits and becomes two new cells
Trait physical characteristic
Heredity the passing of traits from parents to offsping
Genetics study of heredity
Purebred two of the same alleles for one trait
Gene segment of DNA that calls for a certain trait
Allele two flavors of a gene
Dominant Allele allways shows up
Recessive Allele shows up if the dominant isn't their
Hybrid two different alleles for one trait
Probability the chance something will happen
Punnett Square a chart that shows all of the possible outcome of the offspring
Phenotype physical appearence
Genotype genetic makeup
Homozygous two of the same alleles for one trait
Heterozygous two different alleles for one trait
Codominance neither dominant or recessive
Meiosis production of sex cells
Protein Synthesis in the cytoplasm on the ribosome
Messenger RNA copies the coded message and carries it into the cytoplasm
Transfer RNA carries the amino acids and adds them to the growing protein
Nitrogen Bases adenine-thynineguanine-cytosine
Mutation a change in a gene or chromosome
Species a group of similar organisms
Adaptation a trait that helps an organism to survive and reproduce
Evolution the gradual change of a species over time
Scientific Theory a well-tested theory that explains a wide range of observations
Natural Selection the process by which the individuals that are better adapted are more likely to survive than the other members of the species
Variation a difference between two or more animals in the same species
Fossil the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived 10,000 years or more ago
Sedimentary Rock the only rock fossils are found in- layers of sediment built up over millions of years
Petrified Fossil a fossil formed when minerals replace all or part of an organism
Cast a fossil formed when a mold becomes filled in with minerals that then harden
Mold a type of fossil formed when a shell or other hard part of an organism dissolves, leaving an empty space in the shape of the part
Extinct an organism can no longer exist on Earth
Relative Dating a technique used to find which of the two fossils is older
Absolute Dating to find the actual age of a fossil or rock
Fossil Record the millions of fossils scientist have collected
Homologous Structure
Branching Tree
Created by: NolanG