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Stack #362116

WGU TBA4 Statistics

discrete result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number
continuous result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions or jumps
parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population
statistic a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
nominal categories only; data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme
ordinal categories are ordered, but differences cannot be found or are meaningless
interval differences are meaningful, but there is no natural zero starting point and ratios are meaningless
ratio there is a natural zero starting point and ratios are meaningful
voluntary response sample one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included
observational study observe and measure specific characteristics, but don't attempt to modify the subjects being studied
experiment apply some treatment and then proceed to observe its effects on the subjects
cross-sectional study data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time
retrospective study data are collected from the past by going back in time
prospective study data are collected in the future from groups sharing common factors
random sample members from the population are selected in such a way that each individual member has an equal chance of being selected
simple random sample n subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size n has the same chance of being chosen
probability sample selecting members from a population in such a way that each member has a known chance of being selected
systematic sampling select some starting point and then select every kth element in the population
convenience sampling simply use the results that are very easy to get
stratified sampling subdivide the population into at least two different subgroups so that subjects within the same subgroup share the same characteristics, then we draw a sample from each subgroup
cluster sampling first divide the population area into sections, then randomly select some of those clusters, and then chose all the members from those selected clusters
simulation a process that behaves the same way as the procedure, so that similar results are produced
conditional probability a probability obtained with the additional information that some other event has already occurred
event any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure
simple event an outcome or event that cannot be further broken down into simpler components
sample space consists of all possible simple events
complement consists of all outcomes in which event does not occur
random variable a variable that has a single numerical value, determined by chance, for each outcome of a procedure
probability distribution a description that gives the probability for each value of the random variable, often expressed in the format of a graph, table, or formula
discrete random variable either a finite naumber of values or a countable number of values, where "countable" refers to the fact that there might be infinitely many values, but they can be associated with a counting process
continuous random variable infinitely many values, and those values can be associated with measurements on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions
Created by: jabbott