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Environment Techniqu

types of soils

what are soil horizons L and F composed of they are composed of mainly leaves, needles and twigs, commonly found on at the subsurface of mineral soils
what are soil horizon O composed of organic horizon is composed of mainly mosses, rushes and woody materials
what is the soil horizon M this horizon is altered by hydrolsis, oxidation or solution or all three to give a change in colour or structure
what is soil horizon A this mineral horizonformed at or near the surface in the zone of removal materials
what is soil horizon B this mineral horizon characterized by enrichment in organic carbon, sesquioxides or clay
what is soil horizon C this mineral horizon comparatively unaffected by the pedogenic processes operative in A and B
Textural Triangle is the textural soil classification of sand and gravel size, clay size, silt size
soil is general is defined as the unconsolidated, thin, variable layer of mineral and organic material
macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
micronutrients Boron, chlorine, copper, iron and manganese
secondary nutrients Calcium, magnesium and sulphur
micronutrients Molybdenum, Zinc
Grain Size Analysis test to analyze soil texture based on the mechanical analysis and distribution of particles
Coarse Grained particles are visible to the eye examples: boulders, cobbles, gravel and sand
Fine Grained particles are not visible to the eye examples: silt nd clay
Hazens Equation K = 10(D10)2
coeficient of uniformity Cu = D60 divided D10
Atterberg Limits to understand the procedures for determining the liquid and plastic limits of a soil
four stages of soil consistency liquid, plastic, semi-solid and solid
liquid slurry, peasoup divided soft butter
plastic deform-changes it shape
semi solid shrinking and swelling
solid no shrinkage or swelling
Hydrometer test to understand the Bouyouces hydrometer method of mechanical analysisused to determine the approximate particle size distribution of soils that are finer
clay properties to understand the general properties of clay minerals
porosity describes the amount of pore space in soil
Void ratio expresses the relationship between the soilès solid phase and pore phase
Standard Proctor test to understand the principles and application of standard proctor test
soil compaction occurs when a weight on the soil surface rearranges the soil particles
types of wetlands surface water flow, subsurface flow, horizontal and vertical flow, plant cells and living machines
key treatment parameters conversion of nitrogenous wates, solids removal, biochemical oxygen demand and pathogen removal
open water surface flow resembles a natural habitat or marsh
subsurface horizontal or vertical flow system have no standing water on the surface
nitrogen cycle Amminification, Nitrification, Denitrification and Fixation
System essentials a diverse rich bacteria substrate and time
hydrualic residence time 72 hours is target residence time
constructed wetland designs the ability to undertake chemical, biological and physical processes
Created by: chfawcet