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Skeletal

Skeletal tissues, bones, bone markings, joints

TermDescription
Condyle Rounded bump; usually fits into a fossa on another bone forming a joint
Crest Moderately raised ridge
joint junction between two or more bones; articulation
List three primary joint classifications Fibrous, Cartilaginous, synovial
Sutures immovable joints between skull bones
Manubrium flaring upper part of sternum
Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae above coccyx
Costal Cartilage attaches ribs to sternum
Olecranon Process Elbow
Scapula shoulder blades
Clavicle collar bone
Humerus long bone of upper arm
radius bone of thumb side of forearm
ulna bone of little finger side of forearm
carpals wrist bones
metacarpals long bones forming framework of palm of hand
Phalanges finger bones
Body of vertebrae main part; flat round mass; weight bearing part of vertebra
Condyles of femur large rounded bulges at distal (bottom) end of femur; one medial (towards middle of body) and one lateral
Iliac crest upper curving boundry of ilium/hip
Superior ramus of pubis curved portion below hip socket and above orburator foramen
acetabulum hip socket
greater trochanter of femur large bump for muscle attatchment inferior and lateral from head
Lesser trochanter of femur bump for muscle attatchment located inferiorly (down) and medially (towards middle of body) to greater tronchanter
xiphoid process lower tip of sternum
Pubis connects the two sides of the hips
sesamoid bones small flat round bones found in tendons in which high pressure develops
atlas C1 verterbra, first cervical vertebrae
axis C2, second cervial vertebrae
troclea projection with deep depression through the center similar to shape of pulley ( on bottom end of humerus and rests on ulna)
capitulum radial head of humerus; rounded nob below lateral epicondyle ( lower end of humerus across form troclea and rests on radius)
Fibrous Joints Syndesmoses, Sutures, Gomphoses
Gomphoses Fibrous connective tissue connects roots of teeth to alveolar process
Cartilaginous joints Synchondroses, Symphyses
Synchondroses hyaline cartilage connects articulating bones like the coastal cartialge or epiphyseal plate
Symphyses Fibrocartilage between articulating bones like the symphysis pubis ot joints between bodies of vertebrae
Classification of Synovial Joints Uniaxial, Biaxial, Multiaxial
Uniaxial joints around one axis in one plane
Types of uniaxial joints Hinge, Pivot
Biaxial Joint Around two axis perpendicular to each other
Types of Biaxial Joint Saddle, Condyloid
Multiaxial Joint around many axes
Examples of multiaxial joint ball and socket, gliding
Hinge Joint Spool shaped process fits into concave socket Ex. elbow joint
Pivot Joint arch-shaped process fits around peglike process Ex. joint between first and second cervical vertebrae
Saddle Joint saddle shaped bone fits into socket that is concave-covex-concave Ex. thumb joint between first metacarpsal and carpal bone
Condyloid joint Oval condyle fits into eliptical socket Ex. joint between radius and carpal bones
Ball and Socket joint ball shaped process fits into concave socket Ex. shoulder joint and hip
Gliding joint relativly flat articulating surfaces Ex. joints between articulating facets of adjacent vertebrae, joint between carpal and tarsal bones
Supination circular movement; movement turns hand palm side up (Like Soup-a nate How you would hold a bowl of soup in your palm)
Pronation falls under circular movement; turns the palm of the hand down
Abduction Angular movement; moves a part away from the median plane of the body
Adduction Angular movement; moves a part towards the median plane
Rotation circular movement; bone pivoting on its axis Ex. moving head in "no" motion
Circumduction circular movement; moves a part so that its distal end moves in a circle Ex. pitcher wind up to throw a ball
Types of synovial joint movement angular, circular, gliding, special
flexion angular movment; decreases angle between bones Ex. bend head forward toward chest
Extension angular movement; increase angle between bones Ex. stretching movements
Hyperextension angular movement; stretching part beyond its anatomicla position
Plantar flexion angular movement; occurs when foot is stretched down and back
Dorsiflexion Angular movement; occurs when foot is tilted upwards
Inversion special movement; turns the sole of the foot inward
eversion special movement; turns sole of foot outward
Protraction special movement; moves a part foward Ex. sticking out jaw
Retraction special movement; moves part back Ex. pulling jaw back
Elevation special movement; moves part up Ex. Closing mouth
Depression special movement; lowers a part
Primary Ossification Center where a blood vessel enters the cartilage of a developing bone at the midpoint of the diaphysis to initiate bone formation
Secondary ossification center growth center located in the epiphyses of long bones
Carpal bones Pisiform, triquetrum, lunate, scaphoid, hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium
Bone fracture and repair fracture-formation of hematoma-formation of callus-callus replaced with bone tissue
Types of Cartilage Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
Most common type of cartilage Hyaline
Intermembranous ossification process by which flat bones are formed within connective tissue
endochondral ossification process by which bones are formed by replacement of cartilage models
Created by: gdemuth on 2004-02-21



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