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# RFC part 2

### Research Design Quantitative Methods Chapters 7-11

longitudinal survey date is collected at two or more times ex: trend survey, cohort survey, panel survey, and follow up survey.
conducting survey research questionnaire (written collection of survey questions) interview (oral, in person question and answer session), structured items (closed ended items), unstructured item (complete freedom of response open ended ?)
correlational research treated as a type of descriptive research primarily because it describes an existing condition, relationship exists between two or more variables.
common variance part of correlation research, shared variance, extent to which variables vary in a systematic way.
statistical significance probability that the results would have occurred simply due to chance.
relationship study gain insight into variables or factors that are related to a complex variable.
Pearson r measure of correlation that is appropriate when both variables to be correlated are expressed as continuous data ex: ratio or interval
Spearman rho if the data for at least one variable are expressed as rank or ordinal data referred to
criterion variable that is predicted
prediction study attempt to determine which of a number of variables are most highly related to the criterion variable.
causal comparative research attempts to determine the cause, or reason for existing differences in the behavior of groups.
Experimental research manipulates at least on independent variable, controls other relevant variables and observes the effect on one or more dependent variable
Internal Validity degree to which observed differences on the independent variable are a direct result of manipulation of the independent variable, not some other variable.
External Validity ecological validity is the degree to which study results are generalizable or applicable to groups and environments outside the experimental setting.
pretest-posttest control group design requires at least two groups each of which is formed by random assignment.
posttest only control group design same as the pretest-posttest control group design except there is no pretest participants are randomly assigned to at least two groups, exposed to the different treatments and posttested.
solomon four group design combination of the pretest-posttest control group design and the posttest-only control group design. design involves random assignments of participants to one of four groups.
Quasi-Experimental Design when it is not possible to assign subjects to groups randomly, designs are available to the researcher. they provide adequate control of threats to validity.
Control group of participants in a research study who either receive a different treatment than the experimental group or are treated as usual.
correlation coefficient a decimal number between -1.00 and +1.00 that indicates the degree to which two variables are related.
descriptive research research that determines and describes the way things are involves collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions about the current subject of study. SURVEY RESEARCH
dependent variable the change or difference in a behavior or characteristic that occurs as a result of the in independent or grouping variable also called effect, outcome, or posttest.
convenience sampling process of including whoever happens to be available in a sample. Accidental or Haphazard sampling.nonrandom sampling
factorial design experimental design that involves two or more independent or grouping variables at least one of which is manipulated, to study the effects of the variables individually and in interaction with each other.
independent variable behavior or characteristic under the control of the researcher and believed to influence some other behavior or characteristic. Experimental variable, Manipulated variable, cause or treatment.
interaction situation in which different values of the independent or grouping variable are differentially effective depending on the level of a second (control) variable.
inferential statistics data analysis techniques for determining how likely it is that results obtained from a sample or samples are the same results that would have been obtained for the entire population.
purposive sampling process of selecting a sample that is believed to be representative of a given population. JUDGMENT SAMPLING non random sampling
simple random sampling process of selecting a sample in such a way that all individuals in the defined population have an equal and independent chance of selection for the sample.
systematic sampling sampling in which individuals are selected from a list by taking every certain number
stratified sampling purposive process of selecting a sample: population is subdivided into subgroups, and participants are strategically selected from each subgroup.
Group design the design with groups
Treatment modifying or altering something
Cluster: simple and two stage any location that contains an intact group with similar characteristics (population members)
Snowball Nonrandom sampling, is a technique for developing a research sample where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.
Created by: hday