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AICP Cards #2

More AICP Questions

QuestionAnswer
What is Line Item budgeting This type of budget places emphasis on projecting the budget for the next year while adding in inflationary costs.
What is Line Item budgeting The advantage of this method is that it does not require any evaluation of existing services, it is easy to prepare and justify, and it is easy for public officials to understand.
What is Line Item budgeting This type of budget has a short-term focus-- it only looks one-year into the future and is not linked with strategic, comprehensive, or capital improvement plans.
What is Line Item budgeting However, its disadvantages include a lack of flexibility and a lack of a relationship between budget requests and the objectives of an organization.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) This type of budget focuses on planning through accomplishing goals set by a department.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) The advantage of this method is that it helps departments place their programs in perspective and evaluate efforts and accomplishments.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) The disadvantage is that it is time-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and objects be stated in measurable terms.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) emphasizes planning and fosters understanding within all units of an organization.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) The advantage of this method is that it requires a department to consider every aspect of its operation and concentrate on why it does things the way it does.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) The disadvantage of this method is that it is to time consuming to justify every activity.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) This component is part of what type of budgeting system? --Agencies prepare “decision packages” for each program that look at impact on mission of “low”, “medium”, and “high” funding.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) This component is part of what type of budgeting system? --Decision packages of all programs ranked by executive; facilitates budget cuts by city council
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) This component is part of what type of budgeting system? --Budget organized by program areas (includes program mission statements, objectives, and indicators of success)
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) These components are part of what type of budgeting system? # Long-range planning of goals, programs, and required resources # Policy analysis, cost-benefit analysis, program evaluation
Performance-based budget This type of budgeting is focused on linking funding to performance measures. For example, funding could be tied to the amount of time it takes to process plat applications or building permits.
Performance-based budget The advantage of this method is that it helps departments develop and evaluate performance standards. The disadvantage is that it is time-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and objects be stated in measurable terms.
What is Pay-As-You-Go This type of funding opportunity uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects.
What are Reserve Funds These types of funding opportunities are ones that have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements.
What are General Obligation Funds These types of funding opportunities are voter-approved bonds for capital improvements. GO Bonds use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt.
What is Revenue Bonds These types of funding opportunities are commonly used to finance utility improvements and special facilities, such as baseball stadium.
What is Revenue Bonds These types of funding opportunities use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. For example the debt would be paid back through the water use fees.
What is Tax increment financing (TIF) This type of funding opportunity allows a designated area to have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in the area.
What is a Special Assessment? This type of funding opportunity allow a particular group of people to be assessed the cost of a public improvement.
What is Lease-Purchase This type of funding opportunity allows a government to “rent-to-own.” The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvements.
What is a Grant? This type of funding opportunity allow for all or a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government. Typically, this funding mechanism requires a match from the local government.
What is Progressive Tax This type of tax rate increases as income rises. For example, the federal income tax system taxes those with high incomes a higher tax rate than those with low incomes.
What is Proportional Tax? This tax rate is the same regardless of income. For example, a property tax rate is the same regardless of the price of your home. A person who owns a $50,000 home pays the same proportion as a person who owns a $250,000 home
What is Regressive Tax This tax rate decreases as income rises.
What is Cost-benefit analysis This analysis estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs to the community of a project(s) to determine whether they should be undertaken. Typically, this is used for public projects such as highways and other public facilities.
What is Cost-benefit analysis This analysis was originated by the French engineer Jules Dupuit in 1848. In the United States, cost-benefit analysis became common as a result of the Federal Navigation Act of 1936.
What is Cost-benefit analysis This analysis requires that all costs and benefits be converted to a monetary value. This means that social and environmental benefits, such as the preservation of open space, have a monetary value.
What is Cost-benefit analysis In this analysis the proposed project is compared against the current situation without the project.
What is Cost-benefit analysis In comparing multiple project alternatives, the largest ratio creates the highest net monetary value.
What is Cost-benefit analysis If the ratio of benefits over costs is greater than one, then the monetary benefits of the project outweigh its monetary costs.
What is Cost-effectiveness analysis This analysis is a method for selecting among competing projects when resources are limited, was developed by the military.
This is an example of what analysis? If a community has $50,000 to spend on park improvements then several different projects can be prepared, such as adding playground equipment or purchasing a new lawn mower. Cost-effectiveness analysis
What is the Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) This type of Project Management Techniques is a comprehensive way to evaluate a project.
What is the Gnatt Chart. This type of Project Management Techniques focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion.
Linear programming this is a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) this is a scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. It is a good choice when precise time estimates are not available for project tasks.
Critical Path Method (CPM) is a tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a “critical path” through the project tasks. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed.
What is Cost-effectiveness analysis This analysis is a method for selecting among competing projects when resources are limited, was developed by the military.
What is the Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) This type of Project Management Techniques is a comprehensive way to evaluate a project.
What is the Gnatt Chart. This type of Project Management Techniques focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion.
Linear programming this is a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) this is a scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. It is a good choice when precise time estimates are not available for project tasks.
Critical Path Method (CPM) is a tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a “critical path” through the project tasks. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed.
What are TIGER Maps (Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map) This map includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks. The maps are used by the U.S. Census Bureau and can be downloaded into a GIS system, where they may be used as base layers upon which local information is added.
What is Fiscal Impact Analysis? This analysis, also known as cost-revenue analysis, is used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government
What is Fiscal Impact Analysis? If a city is considering an annexation or new zoning policy, this type of analysis may be conducted.
What is an Affirmative Easement An obligation of both parties to take postive steps to preform some act to maintain a reciprocal relationship.
Give examples of Affirmative easements Access easement, utility easement, joint maintenance agreement.
Give an example of a negative easement Consevation easement, view easements, facade or historic preservation easements.
What is a negative easement An easement where both parties refrain from taking certain actions.
What is a dedication? This is a gift, together with the landowners's offer to transmit land to be used for public purpose
What is a performance bond? This is an agreement with teh community to ensure that utilities are built as shown and perform as designed for a designated time period.
What is an exaction? This is a demand by the goverment that hte developer either dedicated certain property or monies for public use tohold the project harmless from public obligation. It must be roughtly proportionate to the impact of the development.
In what year was the Civil Rights Act passed? 1964
In what year was the first major shopping mall opened in the United States? 1956
Created by: lailport