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Concept Dis. Ch.13

Cardiovascular System

the ___ side of the heart circulates blood to the lungs left
during systole, 70 ml of blood ejected from each ventricle represents 60% of the ventricular volume
systolic pressure is a measure of the force of ventricular contraction
can be caused by an intrauterine injury such as those caused by a German measles infection congenital heart diseases
rheumatic fever damages the heart through hypersensitivity
a mitral valve prolapse is commonly asymptomatic
fenfluramine and phentermine damage heart valves in a similar manner as high levels of serotonin
group at elevated risk of acute infective endocarditis is intravenous drug users
high blood lipids, high BP, cigarette smoking, & diabetes are all risk factors for coronary heart disease
myocardial infarction ___ ___ occurs in the left ventricle almost always
after coronary heart disease has developed, reducing risk factors will affect the progression of the disease
protein produced in response to inflammation or infection that signifies a risk of developing coronary artery disease CRP, C-reactive Protein
major cause of death secondary to hypertension is cerebral hemorrhage
natriuretic peptide, ACE inhibitors, digitalis, & diuretics are all methods of treatment for heart failure
aneurysms of the aorta can be remedied surgically
flap-like heart valve located between atrium & ventricle atrioventricular (AV) valve
cup-shaped valve located between ventricles & aorta or ventricles & pulmonary artery semilunar valve
communication between two blood vessels, or other tubular structures anastomosis
surgical connection of two hollow tubular structures surgical anastomosis
fetal artery connecting pulmonary artery w/aorta permitting pressure determined blood flow from pulmonary artery to aorta, bypassing blood flood to nonfunctional fetal lungs ductus arteriosus
opening in atrial septum, to bypass nonfunctioning fetal lungs, which maintains blood flow between 2 atria as atrial septum is developing foramen ovale
blood flow across foramen ovale controlled by a flap of __ tissue on left ___ side of septum that overlaps the opening in the foramen ovale atrial
disease caused by hypersensitivity to antigens of beta streptococcus, characterized by fever, joint paints, & inflammation of heart valves & muscles rheumatic fever
ischemic heart disease is used synonymously with coronary heart disease
designates heart disease as result of inadequate blood flow through coronary arteries ischemic heart disease
expandable metal hollow tubular device placed within lumen of structure where it functions as a support to prevent narrowing of the dilated blood vessel stent
stents are often used to expand the ___ of the vessel lumen
complete cessation of cardiac activity cardiac arrest
necrosis of heart muscle as result of interruption of its blood supply myocardial infarction
necrosis of heart muscle as result of interruption of its blood supply, which may affect full thickness of muscle wall transmural infarct
necrosis of heart muscle as result of interruption of its blood supply, which may only affect part of the muscle wall subendocardial infarct
classification of patients with coronary artery disease complaining of chest pain into one of three separate groups based on ECG & cardiac enzyme tests, used to assess prognosis and guide treatment. acute coronary syndromes
unstable angina, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and ST elevation myocardial infarction are three separate groups of coronary artery disease
dilatation of a structure, such as the aorta, a cerebral artery, or a part of the ventricular wall aneurysm
precordial pain experienced on exertion owing to inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle angina pectoris
irregularity of the heartbeat arrhythmia
One type of arteriosclerosis characterized by thickening and degeneration of small arterioles arteriolosclerosis
disease characterized by diffuse intrahepatic scarring and liver cell degeneration cirrhosis of the liver
accessory circulation capable of delivering blood to a tissue when the main circulation is blocked, as by a thrombus or embolus collateral circulation
heart failure caused by inadequate filling of the ventricles during diastole, in contrast to systolic heart failure in which ejection of blood from the ventricles during systole is inadequate diastolic heart failure
dissection of blood into the wall of the aorta secondary to degeneration of the arterial wall with an associated tear of the lining (intima) of the artery dissecting aneurysm of the aorta
technique for measuring the serial changes in the electrical activity of the heart during the various phases of the cardiac cycle. (Often called ECG or EKG.) electrocardiogram
nonsurgical treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in which the aneurysm graft is inserted through the femoral arteries, positioned within in aneurysm, and anchored within the aorta above and below the aneurysm endovascular aneurysm repair
dilated (varicose) veins of the esophagus, which are often present in patients with cirrhosis of the liver esophageal varices
delay or complete interruption of impulse transmission from the atria to the ventricles heart block
varicosities of anal and rectal veins hemorrhoids
fraction of cholesterol carried by high-density lipoprotein, which is correlated with protection against atherosclerosis high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
lipid-protein complex that transports cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood stream to various locations throughout the body lipoproteins
fraction of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoproteins, which is correlated with atherosclerosis low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
group of conditions consisting of obesity, hypertension, elevated blood glucose, and blood lipids, which predisposes to cardiovascular disease and diabetes metabolic syndrome
surgical procedure in which an aortic aneurysm is opened; a graft is placed within the aneurysm sac and sutured to the aorta above and below the aneurysm so that the blood flows through the graft rather than through the aneurysm open surgical aneurysm repair
heart failure caused by inadequate ejection of blood from the ventricles during systole, in contrast to diastolic heart failure in which filling of the ventricles in diastole is inadequat systolic heart failure
varicose veins within the spermatic cord that drain blood from the testis varicocele