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RFC part 1

Research Design introduction chapters 1-6

Inductive Reasoning developing generalizations based on observations of limited number of events.
deductive reasoning arriving at a specific conclusion based on general principles, observations, or experiences.
quantitative research analysis of numerical data to describe, explain, predict, or control interest.
qualitative research interpretation of comprehensive narrative and visual data to gain insight into a particular interest.
parts of quantitative research current conditions, investigate relations, study cause and effect.
survey research quantitative (current conditions)reports way things are. collecting numerical data to test hypothesis or to answer current questions about subject study.)
correlational research quantitative (relationship between two variables)involves collecting data to determine whether and to what degree a relation exists between two or more variables.)
experimental research quantitative (provides information about cause and effect outcome)
causal-comparative research quantitative (provides information about cause and effect outcome)
Single subject experimental research quantitative (study behavior change that an individual or group exhibits as a result of some intervention or treatment.)
parts of qualitative research qualitative (to probe deeply to understanding about the way things are, why the are that way, and how people in the context perceive them.)
narrative research qualitative (how different humans experience the world around them.)
ethnographic research qualitative (study of cultural patterns and perspectives of people in their natural settings.)
case study research qualitative (research on a unit of study)
qualitative research person to person, analyzed inductively, avoid premature decisions,and clear, detailed description of study.
basic research develop and refine a theory
applied research solve educational problems
evaluation research monitoring progress, judge impact, make decisions
research and development (R&D) researching consumer needs
action research inquires in a teacher learning environment to gather information
variable a place holder
dependent variable effect
sample population of study
theory organized body of concepts that can be investigated.
hypothesis a statement of expectations about the relationship among the variables in the research topic.
literature review written components of a research plan
conducting a literature review list of keywords, locate primary and secondary sources, evaluate sources, abstract your sources, analyze your sources, write the literature review
secondary source secondhand information such as a brief description of a study written by someone other than the person who conducted it.
types of secondary sources review of educational research, an abstract, give complete reference cited
primary source contains firsthand information
examples of primary sources original documents, any firsthand source, relic, or testimony of an eyewitness
type of sources ERIC,ED designation (unpublished doc like report,studies, and lesson plans), EJ articles (published in professional journals), Education Index, PsycINFO, dissertation abstracts, periodical lit, annual review of psychology, www, UnCover, NewJour,
type of sources education week, journal of statistics edu, CSTEEP, National Center for Education Statistics, developing educational standards, internet resource for special education,ASCD,NCTM,NCSS,NSTA,IRA,
Evaluate literature sources problem statement, who was studied, where source published, when conducted, how conducted
refereed journal panel of experts review article, strict guidelines not only in format but also research procedure. more scholarly and trustworthy
meta-analysis statistical summarizing the results of quantitative studies,provides a numerical way of expressing the average results
research plan description of a study proposed to investigate a given problem.
population sample to be selected from
design general strategy or plan for conducting a study
instrument test or tool used for data collection
target population population to which researcher would like to study
accessible population available population
probability sampling are techniques to help select sample
simple random sampling quantitative select a sample in such a way that all individuals in the defined pop have equal and independent chance of selection for the sample
stratified sampling quantitative way to guarantee desired representation of relevant subgroups within the sample. some groups are subdivided into subgroups known as strata
proportional stratified sampling quantitative process of selecting a sample in such a way that identified subgroups in a pop
cluster sampling quantitative intact groups, not individuals are randomly selected
systematic sampling quantitative a sample in which every certain number is used.
sampling error chance variation
sampling bia sampling error that is the fault of the researcher.
nonprobability sampling (nonrandom sampling) quantitative process of selecting a sample using a technique that does not permit the researcher to specify the chance.
convenience sampling quantitative referred to as accidental sampling or haphazard sampling, process of whoever happens to be available at the time
purposive sampling quantitative referred to as judge ment sampling process of selecting a sample that is believed to be representative of a given pop
quota sampling quantitative process of selecting a sample based on required exact numbers of individuals with same characteristics
qualitative sampling selecting a small number of individuals for a study
examples of qualitative sampling intensity, homogeneous, criterion,snowball, random purposive sampling
construct abstraction that can not be observed directly; concept invented to explain behavior
variable placeholder that can assume any one of a range of value
measurement scale system for organizing data that can be inspected, analyzed, and interpreted
nominal variable categorical variable, values include two or more named categories (ex: gender, employment, marital status)
ordinal variable rank order, unequal units (ex: reading groups based on scores)
interval variable characteristics of nominal and ordinal variables but values represent = intervals. NO true zero point.(ex: achievement, aptitude, motivation, and attitude tests
ratio variable properties of the previous three types + measurement scale has a true zero point. (ex: height, weight, time, distance, and speed)
quantitative variables examples range from low to high or less to more. Ordinal, interval and ratio because they describe performance( ex:test scores, heights, speed, age, and class size)
qualitative variable examples nominal or categorical provide information, nominal variables permit persons (ex:eye color, religion, gender, political party)
dependent variable variable hypothesized to depend on or to be caused by another variable. Also called criterion, effect, outcome or post test.
independent variable called experimental, manipulated, the cause, or the treatment, hypothesized cause of the dependent.
test gather information about people's cognitive
cognitive characteristics mental characteristic related to intellect ex: achievement
affective characteristic mental characteristic related to emotion ex: attitude
standardized test administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way no matter where it is given ex: SAT, ACT, Iowa tests, Stanford Achievement test etc.
assessment broad term that uses the entire process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information whether formal, informal, numerical or textual.
performance assessment authentic or alternative assessment, type that emphasizes a students process ex: lab demonstration, debate, essay, science fair project
raw score value a person answered correctly on an assessment
norm referenced scoring assessment compared to performance of others
criterion reference scoring individual performance on an assessment compared to predetermined standard.
self reference scoring approach measuring how individual performance on a single assessment changes over time
cognitive test measures intellectual process like thinking, memorizing, problem, solving, analyzing, reasoning, and applying information.
achievement test measures an individual current proficiency in given areas of knowledge or skill. ex: California achievement test, Stanford, TerraNova, Iowa test.
diagnostic test multiple scores identification of a student's weak and strong areas within the subject area
aptitude test predict how well an individual is likely to perform in a future situation.
affective test assessment designed to measure affective characteristics ex: mental characteristics related to emotion such as attitude, interest and value.
attitude scale measures what individual believes, perceives, or feels about self, other, activities, institutions or situations. ex: likert scales, semantic differential scales, rating scales, Thurstone scale, Guttman scales.
Likert Scales individual to respond to a series of statements by indicating whether he or she strongly agrees, agrees, undecided, disagrees, or strongly disagrees.
semantic differential scales individual to indicate his or her attitude about a topic fair to unfair
rating scale respondent's attitudes toward self, others, activities, institutions or situations.
Thurstone and Guttman Scales select from a list of statements that represent different points of view on a topic
validity degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure and appropriate interpretation of scores.
content validity degree to which test measures intended content area.
item validity whether the test items are relevant to the measurement of the intended content area.
sampling validity how well the test samples the total content area being tested.
Criterion related validity relating performance on test to performance on second test. ex pre and post test
concurrent validity degree to which scores on one test are related to scores on a similar ex: correlation between scores on the test under study (new test) and scores on some other established test (grade point average)
predictive validity degree which a test can predict how well an individual will do in a future situation. ex: algebra aptitude test at the start of school can predict which students will perform well or poorly
construct validity most important form of validity, it asks the fundamental validity ? underlie the variables that researchers measure
consequential validity concerned with the consequences that occur from test. looking at this helps to identify tests that may be harmful to students, teachers, and other
face validity degree to which a test appears to measure what it claims to measure
reliability degree to which the test consistently measures whatever it is measuring. Factor that threatens validity
five types of reliability stability, equivalence, equivalence and stability, internal consistency, scorer/rater
stability (test-retest) stability of scores over time, give one group the same test at two different times and correlate the scores.
equivalence (alternative forms) relationship between two versions of a test intended to be =, give alternative test forms to a single group, and correlate the two scores
equivalence and stability relationship between equivalent versions of a test given at two different times, give two alternative tests to a group at two different times, correlate the scores
internal consistency the extent to which the items in a test are similar to one another in content, give tests to one group and apply split half Kuder-Richardson or Crondbach alpha to estimate the consistency of test items.
scorer/rater the extent to which independent scores or a single scorer over time agree on the scoring of an open-ended test.
standard error of measurement estimate of how often one can expect errors of a given size in a individual test score
Created by: hday