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PSY-108 Sec. 1 Ch. 7

Intro to Psychology Test Section 1 Chapter 7

Classical Conditioning a basic form of learning, neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally produces an unconditioned response. After several trials, the neutral stimulus is now a conditioned stimulus and thus produces a conditioned response
Unconditioned Stimulus in classical conditioning, a stimulus which elicits a reflexive (unconditioned) response.
Unconditioned Response in classical conditioning, a reflexive response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus, such as pupil contraction to bright light, without prior learning
Conditioned Stimulus a stimulus which by repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
Conditioned Response :in classical conditioning, a response to a previously neutral stimulus which has become a conditioned stimulus by repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
Neutral Stimulus in classical conditioning, a stimulus which initially fails to elicit a response, but as conditioning continues, becomes a conditioned stimulus
Acquisition the first stages of learning when a response is established. In classical conditioning, acquisition refers to the period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the conditioned response
Extinction when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery
Generalization tendency for stimuli similiar to the conditioned stimulus to ellicit a similiar response
Discrimination ability to distinguish between conditioned stimuli and other stimuli
Pavlov's Experiment Pavlov's dogs; discovered classical conditioning
Operant Conditioning a form of learning that is determined by consequences that either reinforce or punish particular behaviours, that can increase or decrease the probability of the behaviour
Shaping in operant conditioning, reinforcing successive approximations to the desired response
Reinforcer in conditioning, any stimulus, that after following a response, increases the probability of that response occurring
Primary Reinforcer reinforcers based on innate biological significance, such as food or water
Positive Reinforcement in operant conditioning, a process of increasing the likelihood of a response by immediately following the response with a desirable stimulus (a positive reinforcer).
Positive Punishment decreases behavior by adding negative stimuli
Negative Reinforcement in operant conditioning, a method to increase the probability and strength of a response by removing or withholding an aversive stimuli (negative reinforcer)
Negative Punishment debreases behavior by removing postive stimuli
Continous Reinforcement continuing to reinforce desired response when it occurs
Skinner's Studies influential behaviourist, who pioneered the principle of operant conditioning, including schedules of reinforcement, shaping and subsequent behavior modification (rats and birds)
Fixed Ratio Schedule a reinforcement applied according to a number of predetermined responses, for instance one reinforcement for every three responses
Fixed Interval Schedule a reinforcement applied on a systematic time basis, for instance, every four minutes.
Variable Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement determined by the average number of responses required to receive a reinforcer
Variable Interval Schedule in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement determined by the average time interval which must elapse since the last reinforcer before a response will be reinforced
Observational Learning a process of socialisation that takes place as a result of an individual observing and imitating the behaviour of another person who serves as a model, as opposed to through direct experience
Modeling the term used by Bandura to describe the process of learning and socialisation, through observing and imitating others
Bobo Doll Study an inflatable toy used in Albert Bandura's studies of aggression imitation
Created by: mmb191