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A&P1_Lecture Exam 1

Intro to the Human Body & Cellular Physiology

Define Anatomy Study of structure
Define Physiology Study of function
_____ always reflects ______. Function; Structure
Ex: A hand can move because of its ______. Stucture
List the levels of structural organization from least to most complex Chemical,Cellular,Tissue,Organ,Organ System,Organism
What does the chemical level involve? Involves the interaction of stoms and their combination into molecules. This is the Simplist level at which we can examine the body.
Explain the cellular level. Smallest living subunits of all living organusms.
What are cells made up of? Molecules
What is the tissue level? A group of cells similiar in structure that perform a common function.
What are the 4 types of tissues? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous.
Explain the organ level. A structure composed of two or more types that performs a specific function.
Organs are made up of different types of _______. Tissues
What is the organ system? A group of organs that perform a common function.
How many organ systems are there? 11
The Necessary life functions are present in _____ _________ __________. All living organisms.
How many Necessary Living Functions are there? 8
List the 8 necessary life functions. Maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth & differentiation.
Maintaining boundaries Internal environment must be seperated from the external environment
Cell level = Plasma Membrane (determines what goes in and what goes out.
What is your external boundary? Skin, which in an organ.
Explain movement. activites promoted by the muscular system.
Cellular level of movement White Blood Cells go to fix damaged area.
Organ level of movement Heart-Cardiac muscle, Stomach-Smooth muscle
Movement of whoel body Skeletal muscle
What are the 3 types of muscle? Cardiac, smooth, skeletal.
What is responsiveness? The ability to send chances(stimuli) in the environemnt and respond to them. Sense, process, response.
Which organ system is most involved? 1st Nervous System; 2nd Endocrine System
What is the goal of all the necessary life functions? To keep consistency in the body (homeostasis).
Note: Responsiveness External or internal environment stimuli can be inside the body or outside.
Explain digestion. Breakdown of engested foods to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood or lymph.
Proteins (degestion)? individual amino acids that are absorbed into blood after.
Carbohydrates (digestion)? glucose absorbed and turned into lymph.
Lipids (digestion)? Glycerol and fatty acids.
What do Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids all have in common? All are taking nutrients and breaking them down.
Explain Metabolism. All chemical reactions that occur within the body cells: catabolism, anabolism, and using nutirents and oxygen to produce ATP.
Catabolism (breakdown reactions)= break down food.
Anabolism (synthesis reaction)= proteins being made.
Using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP = making pathways and energy.
Explain excretion. The process of removing wastes and excess materials from the body.
Name 4 organ swystsms that play a role in excretion: 1. Digestive (feces) 2. Urinary (urine) 3. Respiratory (carbon dioxide, CO2) 4. Integumentary (sweat)
Reproduction occurs at the ____ and the ______ level. Cellular; Organismal.
Cell reproduction is also called? Mitosis.
Cellular level: Cell divides into two identical cells.Used for body growth and repair.
Organismal level: (whole body)Role of reproductive systems.Results in new memeber of speciies.
Growth: An increase in size of a bodt part or the organism. Usually due to increase in cell numbers.
Differentiation: Process by which cells become specialized in structure and funtion. Provides an increase in complexity.
Growth depends on ______ _______. Cellular Reproduction
Define homeostasis. "balance" The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment. Homeostasis regulates and flectuates.
In order to survive, all 11 organ systems need to be working properly. .
What two systems are used to maintain homeostasis? Nervous (fast) and Endocrine (slower)
What are the homeostatice control mechanisms? Variable, reseptor, control center, effector
Variable: The factor or event regulated Ex: BODY TEMP has to stay fairy consistent.
Receptor: Detects change and fluctuations in the varibale.Ex: SENSOR that monitors the environment and responds to change.
Control Center: Determines the NORMAL range for the variable. Also analyzes input and determines response.Ex: Whats normal?
Effector: Provides the RESPONSE.Ex: high fever leads to reaction of sweat glands.
Explain Negative Feedback Mechanisms. When a variable fluctuates from the normal range, negative feedback mechanisms RESIST the change and REVERSE it back towards the normal, maintaining homeostasis.
What are some expamples of negative feedback? Control of body temperature, control of blood pressure, control of blood glucose levels. (Variables)
Explain Positive Feedback Mechanisms. When a variable deviates from the normal, a positive feedback mechanism will ENHANCE or exaggerate the stimulus. All and encourage chance to continue in the same direction.
Characterists of Positive Feedback Mechaniams. The varibale deviates furture from its original value or range. Usually control infrequent events. Often referred to as cascades dur to their amplifying effect (snowball effect).
Examples of Positive Feedback Mechanisms. Blood clotting (pletelet-plug), enhancement of labor contractions (increase in force and frequency), milk let-down reflex (allowing milk to be released). Contractions during child birth. Shuts off at a particular endpoint.
The Plasma membrane is also known as ____ ____. Cell membrane.
What does the plasma membrane help maintain? Homeostasis.
Explain the Plasma (cell) membrane. Outer boundary of the cell. Membrane is the barrier. Determines what goes in and out.
What is described as the "Fluid-Mosaic?" The plasama(cell) membrane.
The plasama membrane seperates what two major body fluids? The Intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid.
Explain membrane lipids. 75% Phospholipids (make up plasma membrane)Arranged in a bilayer. Hydrophilic. Hydrophobic. Modified triglyceride.
Define hydrophobic. nonpolar and uncharged "tail"
Define hydrophilic. polar and charged "head"
The Fluid-mosaic model of the cell membrane... Plasma membrane has a liquid quality. It is not rigid. It is very dynamic-phospholipids move freely from side to side. Some proteins float freely. Proteins from a mosaic pattern.
Explain membrane proteins. Integral proteins (transport) Firmly inserted in lipid bilayer. Have hydophobic and hydrophilic regions. Most are tansmembrane.Peripheral Proteins (structural) Loosely attached to the outter or inner surfaces of the integral proteins..less envolved.
Integral Proteins Hydrophobic and hydrophilic allow them to be embedded.
Peripheral Proteins Have an attachment point. Not embedded. Provide stability.
Functions of the Membrane proteins. Transport (channels and carriers), Receptors (binding sites), Attachment, Enzymes (convert one molecule into another), Intercellular Joining(makes sheet of cells which makes barrier), Cell-cell Recognition.
Describe the function of the glycocalyx. "sugar-covering" of external cell surface. Rich in glycoplipids and glycoproteins. Pattern varies ith cell types. Act as specific biological markers (for cell-cell recognition). This is on the outside of a cell like a carbohydrate coding.
Created by: eetzenbach22