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Vocab for Chapter 12

Myers 7th Edition - Chapter 12 Vocabulary

TERMDESCRIPTION
Motivation A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Instinct A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Drive-reduction theory The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to sastify the need.
Homeostasis A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of the body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
Incentive A positive or negative enviromental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Hierarchy of needs Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Glucose The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Set point The point at which an individuals "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Basal metabolic rate The body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight and yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usaully of high calorie food, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Sexual response cycle The four stages of sexual responding descirbed by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
Refractory period A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
Sexual disorder A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
Estrogen A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
Sexual orientation An enduring sexual attraction towards members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the others sex (heterosexual orientation).
Flow A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
Industrial-Organization (I/O) psychology The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Personnel psychology A subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Organizational psychology A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
Structured interview Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
Achievement motivation A desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.
Task leadership Goal-orientated leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
Social leadership Group-orientated leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflicts, and others support.
Theory X Assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone,and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.
Theory Y Assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demostrate their competence and creativity.
Created by: shellenberger on 2006-02-22



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