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comm150 test 1

terms - ch. 1,2,3,4

The verbal utterances and nonverbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication Messages
The thoughts in one person’s mind as well as interpretations one makes of another’s messages meanings
Are words, sounds, and actions that seek to represent specific ideas and feelings symbols
The process of putting our thoughts and feelings into words and nonverbal cues. encoding
The process of interpreting another’s message decoding
The setting in which communication occurs including what precedes and follows what is said context
The location, the environmental conditions, the distance between the communicators, seating arrangement and time of day physical context
The nature of the relationship that already exists between participants social context
The background provided by previous communication episodes between participants historical context
The moods and feelings that each brings to the interpersonal encounter psychological context
The values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations and underlying assumptions prevalent among people in society cultural context
Both the route traveled by the message an the means of transportation channels
Any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning noise
Includes sights, sounds, and other stimuli that might draw away attention physical noise
Internal distractions based on thoughts, feelings, or emotional reactions to symbols psychological noise
Refers to the thoughts and feelings that compete for attention internal noise
Refers to the distractions aroused by certain symbols that take our attention away from the main message. The “girl’ in the office might actually refer to a 40 year old woman. semantic noise
The reactions and response to messages that indicate to the sender how the message was heard, seen and interpreted feedback
Informal interaction among a small number of people who have relationships with each other interpersonal communication setting
Characterized by participants who come together for the specific purpose of solving a problem or arriving at a decision problem solving group settings
Participants deliver a prepared message to a group or audience public speaking settings
Characterized by participants who do not share a physical context but communicate through the use of technology electronically mediated communication settings
Involves communication by way of an electronic network but does not involve real time e-mail
Online communication that allows two or more participants to communicate in real time instant messaging
Sending messages by way of mobile phone text messaging
Electronic mailing lists listservs
Web based forums designed for interactive message exchange between two or more people logged into the same room chat rooms
Are online journals housed on a website weblogs or blogs
Web based sites where a group of people can interact in real time by playing games online games
Spoken without much conscious thought spontaneous expressions
Phrasings that we have learned from past communication encounters and deem appropriate for the current situation scripted communication
Messages put together with careful thought constructed messages
Is the degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship immediacy
The degree to which one participant is perceived to be more dominant or powerful control
Systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people culture
A set of moral principles that may be held by a society, a group or an individual ethics
Refraining from deception of any kind truthfulness and honesty
A choice involving unsatisfactory alternatives moral dilemma
Maintaining a consistency of belief and action (keeping promises) integrity
Achieving the right balance of interests without regard to one’s feelings and being free from bias fairness
Showing regard or consideration for others and their ideas respect
Being accountable for one’s actions and what one says responsibility
The impression that communicative behavior is both appropriate and effective in any given situation communication competence
Goal oriented actions that we can master and repeat in appropriate situations skills
The perception of the speaker’s knowledge, trustworthiness and warmth credibility
Communication without anxiety or nervousness social ease
The process of selectively attending to information and assigning meaning to it perception
A set of characteristics used to differentiate some things from others pattern
Assigning meaning to information interpret
Your self identity self concept
Your over all evaluation of your competence and personal worthiness self esteem
A pattern of learned behaviors that people use to meet the perceived demands of a particular context role
The internal process of observing and regulating your own behaviors based on your analysis of the situation and others’ responses to you self monitoring
The gap between our inaccurate self-perceptions and reality incongruence
Events that happen as the result of being foretold, expected or talked about self-fulfilling prophecies
The internal conversations we have with ourselves self talk
The process of monitoring the social environment to learn more about self and others uncertainty reduction
Assumptions people have developed about which physical characteristics and personality traits or behaviors are associated with another implicit personality theories
To generalize and perceive that a person has a whole set of characteristics when you have actually observed only one characteristic, trait, or behavior halo effect
Attributions that cover up individual differences and ascribe certain characteristics to an entire group of people stereotypes
A rigid attitude that is based on group membership and predisposes an individual to feel, think or act in a negative way toward another person or group. prejudice
A negative action toward a social group or its members on account of group membership discrimination
Reasons we give for others’ behaviors attributions
A message that reflects your understanding of the meaning of another person’s nonverbal behavior perception check
A body of symbols and the systems for their use in messages that are common to the people of the same speech community language
A group of people who speak the same language speech community
Symbols used by a speech community to represent objects, ideas and feelings words
A theory claiming that language influences perception sapir-whorf hypothesis
The direct, explicit meaning a speech community formally gives a word. denotation
The feelings or evaluations we associate with a word connotation
The position of a word in a sentence and the words around it syntactic context
Cultures in which messages are direct, specific and detailed low context culture
Cultures in which messages are indirect, general and ambiguous high context culture
Use words of empathy and support, emphasize concrete and personal language, and show politeness and tentativeness in speaking feminine styles of language
Use words of status and problem solving, emphasize abstract and general language, and show assertiveness and control in speaking masculine styles of language
Words that clarify meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category specific words
Words that appeal to the senses and help us see, hear, smell, taste or touch concrete words
Words that narrow a larger category precise words
Wording that is full of life, vigorous, bright and intense vivid wording
A direct comparison of dissimilar things simile
A comparison that establishes a figurative identity between objects being compared metaphor
The weight or importance given to certain words or ideas emphasis
Specifying the time or time period that a fact was true or known to be true dating information
The mental and verbal practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations indexing generalizations
Choosing language and symbols that are adapted to the needs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of the listeners and avoiding language that alienates speaking appropriately
Technical terms understood only by select groups jargon
Informal vocabulary used by particular groups in society slang
Using words that may apply to only one sex, race or other group as though they represent everyone generic language
Terms are changed because of the sex, race or other characteristic of the individual nonparallel language
The addition of sex, race, age, or other designations to a description marking
Bodily actions and vocal qualities that typically accompany a verbal message nonverbal behaviors
The interpretation of body motions used in communication kinesics
Movements of our hands, arms, and fingers that we use to describe or emphasize gestures
Gestures that augment a verbal message illustrators
Gestures that substitute for words emblems
Gestures that respond to a physical need adaptors
How and how much we look at people with whom we are communicating eye contact or gaze
The arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotional states or reactions to messages facial expressions
Typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message emoticons
The position and movement of the body posture
Posture in relation to another person body orientation
The interpretation of touch haptics
The interpretation of the message based on the paralinguistic features vocalics
The voiced but not verbal part of a spoken message paralanguage
The highness or lowness of the vocal tone pitch
The loudness or softness of the tone volume
The speed at which a person speaks rate
The sound of a person’s voice quality
The variety, melody or inflection in one’s voice intonation
Extraneous sounds or words that interrupt the fluent speech vocalized pauses
The interpretation of a person’s use of space proxemics
The distance you try to maintain when you interact with other people personal space
The physical environment over which you exert control physical space
Objects and possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control artifacts
Round and heavy body type endomorph
Muscular and athletic body type mesomorph
Lean and little muscle development ectomorph
The interpretation of a person’s use of time chronemics
A time orientation that emphasizes doing one thing at a time monochronic time orientation
A time orientation that emphasizes doing multiple things at once polychronic time orientation
Created by: mjbarne