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Antibiotics by Taryn

Everything we need to know about Antibiotics

Penicillin G Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis-Narrow Specrum Penicillin
Penicillin V Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis-Narrow Spectrum Penicillin
Dicloxacillin Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis-Penicillinase Resistant Penicillin
Amoxicillin Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis-Extended Spectrum Penicillin
Amoxicillin + Clavulanate An Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis-Penicillin, plus a B-lactamase inhibitor. "Augmentin"
Cephalexin Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis- 1st Generation Cephalosporin
Cefuroxime Axetil Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis- 2nd Generation Cephalosporin
Ceftriaxone Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis-3rd Generation
Cefepime Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis- 4th Generation
Vancomycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis- #1 choice for MRSA
Gentamycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-An IV Aminoglycoside
Neomycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Most nephrotoxic Aminoglycoside, used in triple antibiotic topical preps.
Tetracycline Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Tetracycline
Doxyclcyline Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Tetracycline
Minocycline Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Tetracycline
Tetracyclines Drug of choice for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Tetracyclines Discoloration of teeth, severe nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.
Aminoglycosides Nephrotoxic and Ototoxic, most common cause of drug induced renal failure.
Aminoglycosides Wide range of aerobic gram negative bacilli
Macrolides Active against many gram+ and gram - bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia.
Macrolides Largely devoid of serious toxicity. Most common effects are stomatitis, heartburn, nausea, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea.
Erythromycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Macrolide
Erythromycin and Clarithromycin Inhibit liver enzyme CYP34A thereby effecting other drug metabolism.
Azithromycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Macrolide.
Azithromycin Effective single dose tx for chlamydial urethritis
Clarithromycin Most active macrolide against H. pylori (PUD)
Clarithromycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Macrolide
Telithromycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Ketolide
Telithromycin Mild to moderate community acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumo, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, H. inluenzae and M. Catarrhalis.
Telithromycin Most common adverse effects are diarrhea and nausea. Small % have severe liver toxicity. Prolongs QT interval. Respiratory failure in Myasthenia Gravis.
Clindamycin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Other
Clindamycin Gram+ cocci and anaerobes like C. perfringes (gas gangrene), and MRSA and penicillin resistant strep (necrotizing fasciitis)
Clindamycin Associated with GI superinfection by C.difficile, which can lead to severe diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
Mupirocin Inhibitor of Bacterial Protein Synthesis-Other
Mupirocin #1 topical choice for Impetigo and used to eradicate nasal colonization of MRSA.
Penicillin G Group A Strep infections, syphilis, and gas gangrene (C.difficile).
Route of Penicillin G vs Penicillin V administration Penicillin V given orally because has better acid stability and oral bioavailability than Penicillin G. But Penicillin G has 2 Intramuscular forms; Procaine (higher concentration for 24 hours) and Benzathine(low concentration for weeks)
Penicillin V Pharyngitis
Dicloxacillin MRSA
Amoxicillin Respiratory tract infections; otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia
The 3 primary mechanisms of bacterial resistance to penicillins and other B-lactam antibiotics 1.Inactivation of drug by B-lactamase enzyme
Penicillins Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and seizures.
What is the general spectrum of antimicrobial activity from Generation 1 Cephalosporin to Generation 4. Generation 1 to 4 has increasing activity against gram negative bacilli
Cephalexin Primarily used to treat skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram positive cocci and uncomplicated UTIs.
Cefuroxime axetil Active against many strains of Hemophilus influenzae, and used to treat respiratory tract infections and otitis media caused by them.
Ceftriaxone Used as a single dose treatment for Gonorrhea. Also used to treat otitis media, pneumonia, meningitis, intra-abdominal or UTI infections and advanced Lyme disease.
Cefepime Active against many gram negative bacilli that are resistant to other cephalosporins. Used to treat a variety of systemic infections including intra abdominal and UTI infections and pneumonia.
Vancomycin First choice for MRSA caused skin and soft tissue infections. Also used to treat endocarditis and necrotizing fasciitis caused by penicillin resistant organisms.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole An Antifolate Drug; A sulfonamide plus a folate reductase inhibitor.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole Urinary tract and prostate infections; pulmonary infections caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) and Nocardia species.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole Can cause megaloblastic anemia in those with low folic acid intake.
Ciprofloxacin A Fluoroquinolone
Levofloxacin A fluoroquinolone
Ciprofloxacin Treats UTIs, prostatitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, and anthrax.
Levofloxacin Treats communiity acquired pneumonia and drug resistant tuberculosis. Also treats corneal ulcers topically.
Fluoroquinolones Generally well tolerated, but can cause tendonitis and tendon rupture. Also alterations in blood glucose, phototoxicity, and prolongation of the QT interval.
Nitrofurantoin In the "other" category of antibacterial drugs
Nitrofurantoin Activity is limited to the urinary bladder therefore treating uncomplicated UTIs. Preferred in macrocrystalline formulation.
Isoniazid An Antimycobacterial drug
Rifampin An Antimycobacterial drug
Isoniazid Bactericidal against sensitive strains of M. tuberculosis and some M. Kansasii. Also treats latent tuberculosis.
Isoniazid Can cause hepatitis because it elevates serum transaminase levels. And can cause peripheral neuritis, because it inactivates pyrdoxine (vit B6) causing deficiency. Also resistance is increasing because of mutations of the katG gene.
Rifampin A broad spectrum antibiotic used to treat TB and leprosy. And used to prevent meningococcal and H. influenzae type b infections.
Rifampin Can cause hepatitis, hypersensitivity reactions, discoloration of saliva, tears, and urine. And can accelerate other drug metabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 isozymes. Major drawback is microbes acquire resistance during exposure.
Amphoterecin B An Antifungal drug
Amphoterecin B Active against a wide variety of fungi, and is the standard for comparison of other drugs in the treatment of serious fungal infections.
Amphoterecin B The most toxic antibiotic. Causes renal toxicity in 80% of patients.
Nystatin An Antifungal drug
Nystatin Active against Candida species. Treats mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral candidiasis, intestinal candidiasis, and vaginal candidiasis.
Fluconazole An Antifungal drug-Azole derivative
Fluconazole Treats fungal meningitis because it can achieve significant concentration in the CSF. Also used to prevent cryptococcal meningitis, and treats candidiasis.Also vaginal candidiasis with one dose.
Voriconazole An Antifungal drug-Azole derivative
Voriconazole Has enhanced activity against aspergillus and candida species. Treats systemic fungal infections like invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, and invasive candidiasis.
Clotrimazole An Antifungal drug-Azole derivative
Clotrimazole Topical treatment for Candida infections and dermatophyte infections of the skin.
Azole Derivatives Usually well tolerated but systemic administration can cause rash, elevated hepatic enzymes, hepatic injury, hematopoietic toxicity and GI distress. Also can inhibit other drug metabolisms.
Terbinafine An Antifungal drug
Terbinafine Primarily used to treat superficial dermatophyte infections but also fungistatic against candida. Often administered orally to treat onychomycosis (fungal infection of nails).
Acyclovir An Antiviral for HSV and VSV
Famciclovir An Antiviral for HSV and VSV
Valacyclovir An Antiviral for HSV and VSV
Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir Used to treat herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus. Also used for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infections and shingles.
Oseltamivir An Anitviral for Influenza A and B, and Avian flu
Zanamivir An Antiviral for Influenza A and B, and Avian flu
Oseltamivir and Zanamivir Inhibit the release and spreading of Influenza A and B virions. Active against nearly all strains of influenza A and B, and the avian flu virus.
Lamivudine An Antiviral for Hep B
Lamivudine Inhibits replication of the hepatitis B virus and approved as first orally effective drug for these patients.
Ribavirin An Antiviral-Broad specturm
Ribavirin Only indication approved for is the treatment of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. Neonates treated with an aerosol form.
Ribavirin Inhalation can cause serious pulmonary and cardiovascular effects; apnea, pneumothorax, worse status, cardiac arrest. When given by IV can cause seizures. Contraindicated in pregnant/lactating women.
Interferon-alpha An Antiviral for hepatitis viruses and some papillomaviruses.
Interferon-alpha Used to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis C, non-A, non-B, non-C, genital warts (condylomata acuminata), hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, Kaposi's sarcoma, renal carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and multiple myeloma.
Interferon-alpha Can cause many serious adverse effects; hematologic toxicity, cardiac arrhythmias, BP changes, CNS dysfunction, GI distress, chills, fatigue, headache, and myalgia.
Metronidazole An Antiparasitic against many anaerobic protozoa and others
Metronidazole Drug of choice for amebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis. Used for management of dracunculiasis(guinea worm infection). Drug of choice for enterocolitis caused by C. difficile. And treats acne rosacea.
Metronidazole Usually well tolerated but can cause considerable GI distress, also nausea, vomiting, metallic taste, transient leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Also increases anticoagulant effect of warfarin, and causes a reaction with alcohol.
Permethrin An Antiparasitic for ectoparasites
Permethrin Treatment of choice for the most common ectoparasites in humans. Lice (pediculosis), and mites (scabies).
Created by: tarynn