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Concept Dis. Ch. 10

Neoplastic Disease

benign or malignant overgrowth of tissue that serves no normal function tumor
spread of cancer cells from the primary site of origin to distant site within the body metastasis
descriptive term for a benign tumor projecting from and epithelial surface polyp
descriptive term for a benign tumor projecting from an epithelial surface papilloma
malignant tumor derived from glandular/ parenchymal epithelial cells carcinoma
malignant tumor arising from primary tissues, other than surface, glandular, or parenchymal epithelial cells; connective/supporting tissue sarcoma
neoplastic proliferation of leukocytes leukemia
neoplasm of lymphoid cells lymphoma
Hodgkin disease is one type of a lymphoma
characteristic cells of Hodgkin disease, containing two "mirror image" nuclei with prominent nucleoli Reed-Sternberg cell
keratin-forming cell in the epidermis keratinocyte
melanin-producing cell in the epidermis melanocyte
dark pigment found in the skin, in the middle coat of the eye, and in some other regions melanin
benign tumor of pigment-producing cells nevus
malignant tumor of pigment-producing cells melanoma
tumor of a mixed cell components, can be either benign or malignant teratoma
common type of benign cystic teratoma that commonly arises in the ovary dermoid cyst
malignant renal tumor of infants and children Wilms tumor
precancerous warty proliferation of squamous epithelial cells in sun damaged skin of older persons actinic keratosis
precancerous, pigmented skin lesion arising from proliferation of melanocytes lentigo maligna
white patch of hyperplastic & usually atypical squamous epithelium on oral mucosa or genital tract mucosa alteration in a base sequence in DNA; may alter cell function
a mutation is transmitted from parents to offspring only if mutation is in gametes
normal gene that regulates some aspect of cell growth, maturation, or division proto-oncogene
gene that suppresses proliferation tumor suppressor gene
genes that monitor & correct errors in DNA replication during cell division DNA repair genes
abnormally functioning gene that causes unrestrained cell growth leading to formation of a tumor oncogene
oncogene results from ____ or ____ of a proto-oncogene mutation; translocation
programmed cell death that occurs after a cell has lived a normal life span apoptosis
study of cells from various sources, commonly used as a screening test for cancer Pap smear
a frozen section is a method used by the pathologist for rapid diagnosis of tumors
tissue frozen solid, cut into thin sections, stained & examined microscopically frozen section
antigen associated with growing tumor cells, which serves as an indicator of tumor growth in the body tumor-associated antigen
tumor-associated antigen that resembles antigen secreted by cells of fetal gastrointestinal tract carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
protein produced by fetal liver in early gestation alpha fetoprotein
alpha fetoprotein in sometimes produced by tumor cells
alpha fetoprotein level is elevated, in amniotic fluid, when the fetus has neural tube defect
hormone made by placenta in pregnancy having actions similar to pituitary gonadotropins human chorionic gonadotropin (HGC)
human chorionic gonadotropin (HGC) is the same hormone made by some neoplastic cells in some types of malignant testicular tumors
anticancer drug that disrupts cell function by binding DNA chains together so that they cannot separate alkylating agent
substance that competes with/replaces another substance (metabolite) required for cell growth/multiplication antimetabolite
anticancer chemotherapy administered after surgical resection of a tumor in an attempt to destroy any undetected foci of metastatic tumor before they become clinically detectable Adjuvant chemotherapy
treatment given to retard growth of disseminated malignant tumor by stimulating body's own immune system immunotherapy
broad-spectrum antiviral agent manufactured by various cells in the body interferon
lymphokine that stimulated growth of lymphocytes Interleukin-2
neoplastic proliferation of leukocytes leukemia
disturbance of bone marrow function that is characterized by anemia, leukopenia, & thrombocytopenia myelodysplastic syndrome
in some patients, myelodysplastic syndrome may be a precursor to leukemia
malignant neoplasm of plasma cells multiple myeloma
antibody protein immunoglobulin
angioma designates a benign tumor
leukemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues
rapid growth, metastasizing, and poorly differentiated cells are all characteristics of a malignant tumor
teratomas most frequently occur within the reproductive system
malignant melanoma tumors originate in melanocytes
actinic keratosis, lentigo maligna, leukoplakia, & colon polyps are all precancerous conditions
when functioning correctly, paired tumor suppressor genes will inhibit cell proliferation
translocation of 9 & 22 chromosomes where results from the Philadelphia Chromosome
sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding, changing wart or mole, & indigestion are all warning signals by American Cancer Society
are used to measure postoperative recovery tumor-associated antigen tests
anticancer drugs that are most effective against rapidly growing tumors are chemotherapy anticancer drugs
patients with a high risk of recurrence may be able to receive a tumor vaccine made from their own tumors
granulocytic. acute, lymphocytic, and monocytic are all types of leukemia
characterized by continuous growth & maturation of cells normal life processes
in order to control their regular growth rate, all cells are subjected to control mechanisms
overgrowth of cells that serves no useful purpose & are not subject to control mechanisms normally regulating cell growth & differentiation neoplasm
benign tumors may push normal tissue aside, but does not infiltrate surrounding tissues or spread by blood or lymphatic channels
appear mature and closely resemble the normal cells from which the tumor was derived benign tumors
composed of less well-differentiated cells, grows rapidly, & infiltrate surrounding tissues rather than growing by expansion malignant tumors
the infiltrating strands of a malignant tumors often find their way into vascular or lymphatic channels
secondary deposits of a malignant tumor are called metastatic tumors
tumors are named & classified according to cells & tissues from which they originate
carcinomas, sarcomas, & leukemias are the three groups of malignant tumors
word used to indicate any type of malignant tumor cancer
malignant tumors acquire properties that allow them to flourish at expense of surrounding normal cells
when a malignant tumor secretes enzymes that break down normal cell & tissue barriers it allows them to infiltrate into surrounding tissues & lymphatic channels, eventually spreading throughout the body
proliferating tumor cells do not wear out/die after specific number of cell divisions
term carcinoma is not applied to malignant tumors of endothelium or mesothelium
malignant tumors of endothelium or mesothelium behave more like malignant tumors of connective-tissue
carcinoma is classified by designating the type of epithelium from which it arose
exact type of sarcoma is specified by prefix designating cell of origin
malignant tumor of cartilage chondrosarcoma
malignant tumor of fibroblasts fibrosarcoma
malignant tumor of fat cells liposarcoma
malignant tumor of muscle cells myosarcoma
malignant tumor of bone-forming cells osteosarcoma
malignant tumor of blood vessels angiosarcoma
neoplasms arising from precursors of WBCs usually do not form solid tumors
over 80% of lymphomas arise from B cells
frequently occurs in young adults, starts in single lymph node/small group, Reed-Sternberg cells intermixed w/lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, & fibrous tissues Hodgkin lymphoma
Reed-Sternberg cells make up only small part of total cells in tumor, but secrete ___ attracting other cells, in order to intermix cytokines
early localized Hodgkin lymphoma is treated with radiation therapy
more advanced Hodgkin lymphoma is treated with anticancer chemotherapy supplemented with radiation therapy
all lymphomas, other than Hodgkin lymphoma, are grouped together under general term non-Hodgkin lymphoma
quite variable in appearance, behavior and prognosis B-cell lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphomas)
based on type of cells tumor arisen(T, B, & NK cells & histiocytes) & maturity of cells, including subgroups within each classification of lymphomas
most arise from keratin-forming cells or melanocytes skin tumors
nevus is a Latin word meaning birth mark
benign proliferations of keratinocytes keratoses
composed of clusters of infiltrating cells that resemble normal basal cells of epidermis basal cell carcinoma
composed of abnormal infiltrating squamous cells squamous cell carcinoma
squamous cell & basal cell carcinoma can usually be cured by surgical excision
predisposes for melanoma, keratoses as well as skin damage & premature aging of skin excessive sun exposure
rare tumors in children, arising in brain, retina of eye, adrenal glands, kidney, liver or genital tract are primitive cell tumors
primitive cell tumors are named from site of origin, adding -blastoma on the end
primitive cell tumor arising from retina of eye retinoblastoma
primitive cell tumor of hepatic origin hepatoblastoma
malignant tumors frequently induce new blood vessels
parts of a tumor with poorest blood supply undergo necrosis
when tumor growing within an organ blood supply is best at junction of tumor & adjacent normal tissue
small blood vessels may be exposed in ulcerated base of tumor
blood may ooze continuously from vessels at ulcerated base of tumor, causing anemia
two characteristic features of malignant tumors infiltration & metastasis
carcinoma in situ means in site carcinoma
can be completely cured by surgical excision, or treatment that eradicates abnormal epithelium, & most favorable stage to successful treatment carcinoma in situ
conditions that have high likelihood of eventually developing into cancer precancerous
actinic refers to sun rays
if left untreated keratoses eventually develop into skin cancers
Latin term lentigo maligna means malignant freckle
lentigo maligna can also develop into melanomas
leukoplakia can give rise to squamous cell cancers of oral cavity
colon polyps are prone to malignant change
unusual types of leukemia & lymphoma are caused by the virus T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus HTLV-1
T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus HTLV-1 is related to the virus that causes AIDS
caused by a herpes virus (HHV-8 human herpesvirus 8), in AIDS patients, Kaposi sarcoma
some strains appear to predispose for cervical cancer, as well as squamous cell carcinomas of mouth, throat & larynx papilloma virus
squamous cell carcinomas of mouth, throat & larynx oropharyngeal carcinomas
predisposes to carcinoma of liver chronic viral hepatitis
Epstein-Barr virus infections (mono) have been linked to nasophyngeal carcinoma
activation of an oncogene may consist of change in only a single nucleotide in DNA of gene point mutation
activation of an oncogene may consists of a mutation that may generate multiple copied of same gene amplification
conversion of proto-oncogene into an oncogene activation of an oncogene