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Definition of diseases

a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials abscess
a common skin condition, caused by changes in pilosebaceous units, skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and its associated sebaceous gland, via androgen stimulation acne
a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye acute glaucoma
implies inflammation of the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ acute hepatitis
the medical description of the loss of hair from the head or body, sometimes to the extent of baldness alopecia
Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT) or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of dementia alzheimer's disease
refers to infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica amebiasis
the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age amenorrhea
a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood anemia
a localized, blood-filled dilation (balloon-like bulge) of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall aneurysms
severe chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply) of the heart muscle, generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart's blood vessels) angina
technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel; typically as a result of atherosclerosis angioplasty
a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location aortic aneurysm
a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix. It is a medical emergency appendicitis
a term for any of a large and heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is abnormal electrical activity in the heart. The heart beat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular arrhythmia
an abnormal connection between veins and arteries, usually congenital. This pathology is widely known because of its occurrence in the central nervous system, but can appear in any location arteriovenous malformation
an autism spectrum disorder, and people with it therefore show significant difficulties in social interaction, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests asperger syndrome
the most common cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) and involves the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart atrial fibrillation
a disorder of neural development that is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. autism
the most common cause of vaginal infection. It is less commonly referred to as vaginal bacteriosis. It is not considered to be a sexually transmitted infection[2] (see causes below) bacterial vaginosis
inflammation of the glans penis. When the foreskin (or prepuce) is also affected, it is termed balanoposthitis. balanitis
physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between an air space inside or beside the body and the surrounding fluid barotrauma
a form of vasculitis that can lead to ulceration and other lesions behcet's syndrome
grief bereavement
a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood clinically referred to as mania or, if milder, hypomania bipolar disorder
an ocular disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the eyelid margins. Blepharitis may cause redness of the eyes, itching and irritation of the gritty sensation that may occur, however lubricating drops do little to improve the condition blepharitis
a skin disease caused by the infection of hair follicles, resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissue.Individual boils can cluster together and form an interconnected network of boils called carbuncles. boil
a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone with material from the patient's own body, an artificial, synthetic, or natural substitute bone grafts
occurs in the mammary glands by expanding veins and the pressure of new breast milk contained within them breast engorgement
Breast lump is a a localized swelling that feels different from the surrounding breast tissue breast lump
inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. This inflammation is usually caused by viruses bronchiolitis
the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively. and if this is unexpected can be termed a sudden cardiac arrest or SCA cardiac arrest
the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death or both cardiomyopathy
an emergency procedure for people in cardiac arrest or, in some circumstances, respiratory arrest cardiopulmonary resuscitation
a narrowing or constriction of the inner surface (lumen) of the carotid artery, usually caused by atherosclerosis carotid artery disease
a medical condition in which the median nerve is compressed at the wrist, leading to paresthesias, numbness and muscle weakness in the hand carpal tunnel syndrome
a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light cataract
an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy onward celiac disease
a diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin cellulitis
a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel cerebral aneurysm
the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix cervical dysplasia
a condition in which the central columnnar epithelium protrudes out through the external os of the cervix cervical ectropion
:= cervical ectropion cervical erosion
a term referring to degenerative arthrosis of the joints between the centra of the spinal vertebrae and/or neural foraminae cervical spondylosis
a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and become itchy raw pockmarks chickenpox
a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis chlamydia infection
the removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis circumcision
a consequence of chronic liver disease, characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function cirrhosis
an infection of the lip by herpes simplex virus. In many cases, it causes small blisters or sores on or around the mouth that are commonly known as cold sores or fever blisters cold sore
also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix colorectal cancer
an acute inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), most commonly due to an allergic reaction or an infection (usually viral, but sometimes bacterial). conjunctivitis
a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens (allergic contact dermatitis) or irritants (irritant contact dermatitis). Phototoxic dermatitis occurs when the allergen or irritant is activated by sunlight contact dermatitis
Birth control contraception
an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from anus to mouth, causing a wide variety of symptoms crohn's disease
a group of respiratory diseases that often affects infants and children under age 6. It is characterized by a barking cough; a whistling, obstructive sound (stridor) as the child breathes in; and hoarseness due to obstruction in the region of the larynx croup
inflammation of the urinary bladder. The condition more often affects women, but can affect either sex and all age groups cystitis
the excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp dandruff
a serious cognitive disorder. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury or progressive, resulting in long-term decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal aging dementia
a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the latter diabetes insipidus
a condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to, insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy diabetes mellitus
retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which can eventually lead to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more diabetic retinopathy
a medical disorder, the term being used to describe a person of short stature. It is sometimes defined as a person with an adult height under 4 feet 10 inches (147 cm) dwarfism
a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation dysmenorrhea
popularly known as upset stomach or indigestion, meaning hard or difficult digestion, is a medical condition characterized by chronic or recurrent pain in the upper abdomen, upper abdominal fullness and feeling full earlier than expected when eating dyspepsia
an acute and life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is characterized by the appearance of tonic-clonic seizures, usually in a patient who had developed preeclampsia eclampsia
a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It is one of the notable aspects of newborns exhibiting Harlequin type ichthyosis ectropion
a disease in a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the epidermis. The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions eczema
an abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin or in one or more cavities of the body. Generally, the amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis edema
(also known as "Cutis hyperelastica") is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders, caused by a defect in the synthesis of collagen (a protein in connective tissue) ehlers-danlos syndrome
a medical condition in women in which endometrial like cells appear and flourish in areas outside the uterine cavity endometriosis
(or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth ("hypertrophy") of the adenoid tonsil enlarged adenoids
a medical condition in which the eyelids fold inward. It is very uncomfortable, as the eyelashes rub against the cornea constantly. is usually caused by genetic factors and may be congenital entropion
a medical condition in which there is inflammation of the epididymis. This condition may be mildly to very painful, and the scrotum (sac containing the testicles) may become red, warm and swollen. It may be acute (of sudden onset) or rarely chronic epididymitis
a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain epilepsy
a transient symptom of excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. It can manifest as an alteration in mental state, tonic or clonic movements, convulsions, and various other psychic symptoms epileptic seizure
a paralysis of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) resulting in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Several conditions can cause a facial paralysis, e.g., brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease facial palsy
(meaning muscle and connective tissue pain) is also referred to as FM or FMS. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and allodynia, a heightened and painful response to pressure fibromyalgia
one of several possible manifestations of infection by erythrovirus previously called parvovirus B19.[1] The disease is also referred to as slapped cheek syndrome, slapcheek, slap face or slapped face fifth disease
a disorder in which the shoulder capsule, the connective tissue surrounding the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder, becomes inflamed and stiff, and grows together with abnormal bands of tissue, called adhesions frozen shoulder
is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine and resulting in acute diarrhea gastroenteritis
chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the oesophagus gastroesophageal reflux disease
a genital infection by herpes simplex virus. genital herpes
a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner genital warts
caused by the infection of the small intestine by a single-celled organism called Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis occurs worldwide with a prevalence of 20–30%[1] in developing countries giardiasis
is a renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys glomerulonephritis
inflammation or infection of the tongue. It causes the tongue to swell and change color. Finger-like projections on the surface of the tongue (papillae) may be lost, causing the tongue to appear smooth glossitis
a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae (also called Gonococcus, which is often abbreviated as "GC" by clinicians). In the US, its incidence is second only to chlamydia among bacterial STDs gonorrhea
caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood that crystallizes and deposits in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues. It affects 1% of the Western populations at some point in their life gout
a condition in which a problem with the structure or function of the heart impairs its ability to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs heart failure
a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body's ability to control blood clotting or coagulation, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken hemophilia
swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus hemorrhoids
protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes upwards into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm hernia
a medical condition affecting the spine, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc (discus intervertebralis) allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out herniated disk
a viral disease caused by both herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) herpes simplex
a papillomavirus that infects the epidermis and mucous membranes of humans. HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis HPV
a pathological accumulation of serous fluid in a bodily cavity hydrocele
the term for overactive tissue within the thyroid gland, resulting in overproduction and thus an excess of circulating free thyroid hormones hyperthyroidism
the medical term for a state produced by a lower than normal level of blood glucose. The term literally means "under-sweet blood" hypoglycemia
the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. If it is lower than normal then it is called as low blood pressure or hypotension hypotension
the surgical removal of the uterus, usually performed by a gynecologist hysterectomy
a superficial bacterial skin infection most common among school children. People who play close contact sports such as rugby, American football and wrestling are also susceptible, regardless of age. Impetigo is not as common in adults. impetigo
a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance impotence
an infectious, very widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a type of Herpes virus, which well over 90% of all adults are exposed to at some point in their lives infectious mononucleosis
a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion. It can occur at any level distal to the duodenum of the small intestine and is a medical emergency intestinal obstruction
a form of anterior uveitis and refers to the inflammation of the iris of the eye iritis
a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause irritable bowel syndrome
a yellowish discoloration of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood) jaundice
the most common form of persistent arthritis in children. (Juvenile in this context refers to an onset before age 16, idiopathic refers to a condition with no defined cause, and arthritis is the inflammation of the synovium of a joint.) juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
a tumor caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) kaposi's sarcoma
a disease, largely of infants, which affects many organs, including the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and blood vessel walls, but the most serious effect is on the heart where it can cause severe aneurysmal dilations kawasaki disease
simply dry eyes, is an eye disease caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation commonly found in humans and some animals keratoconjunctivitis sicca
47, XXY or XXY syndrome is a condition in which males have an extra X sex chromosome. While females have an XX chromosomal makeup, and males an XY, affected individuals have at least two X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome klinefelter's syndrome
an inflammation of the inner ear. It derives its name from the labyrinths that house the vestibular system (which sense changes in head position). Labyrinthitis can cause balance disorders labyrinthitis
the inability to metabolize lactose, because of a lack of the required enzyme lactase in the digestive system lactose intolerance
an inflammation of the larynx. It causes hoarse voice or the complete loss of the voice because of irritation to the vocal folds (vocal cords). Dysphonia is the medical term for laryngitis and other vocal disorders laryngitis
a degenerative disease of the hip joint, where growth/loss of bone mass leads to some degree of collapse of the hip joint and to deformity of the ball of the femur and the surface of the hip socket Legg–Calvé–Perthes syndrome
a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae) leishmaniasis
a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes) leukemia
an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia lyme disease
a term meaning "disease of the lymph nodes." It is, however, almost synonymously used with "swollen/enlarged lymph nodes". It could be due to infection, auto-immune disease, or malignancy lymphadenopathy
a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system lymphedema
a cancer that begins in the lymphocytes of the immune system and presents as a solid tumor of lymphoid cells lymphoma
the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely mastectomy
an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses measles
a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma) melanoma
a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance. It is characterized by episodes of dizziness and tinnitus and progressive hearing loss, usually in one ear. It is caused by lymphatic channel dilation, affecting the drainage of endolymph meniere's disease
inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs meningitis
the permanent cessation of reproductive fertility occurring some time before the end of the natural lifespan menopause
an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period at regular intervals. Causes may be due to abnormal blood clotting, disruption of normal hormonal regulation of periods or disorders of the endometrial lining of the uterus. menorrhagia
a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes metabolic syndrome
a neurological syndrome characterized by altered bodily perceptions, severe headaches, and nausea. Physiologically, the migraine headache is a neurological condition more common to women than to men migraine
the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeks of gestation miscarriage
a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole mitral valve prolapse
a disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms multiple sclerosis
a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus mumps
commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing some heart cells to die myocardial infarction
a general term for inflammation of the muscles myositis
a nonspecific disorder in which the kidneys are damaged, causing them to leak large amounts of protein from the blood into the urine nephrotic syndrome
a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups nervous tics
a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that either directly, via intrinsic muscle pathology, or indirectly, via nerve pathology, impair the functioning of the muscles neuromuscular disease
:=Irritable bowel syndrome nonulcer dyspepsia
a mental disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce anxiety, by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing anxiety, or by combinations of such thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) obsessive-compulsive disorder
chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of two commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs causing shortness of breath. obstructive pulmonary disease
a group of diseases and mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and the subchondral bone next to it osteoarthritis
a genetic bone disorder. People with OI are born with defective connective tissue, or without the ability to make it, usually because of a deficiency of Type-I collagen osteogenesis imperfecta
a disease resulting from the temporary or permanent loss of the blood supply to an area of bone osteonecrosis
a disease of bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered osteoporosis
("swimmer's ear") is an inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal. Along with otitis media, external otitis is one of the two human conditions commonly called "earache" otitis externa
inflammation of the middle ear, or middle ear infection otitis media
an abnormal growth of bone near the middle ear. It can result in hearing loss otosclerosis
a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary ovarian cancer
any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can be as small as a pea, or larger than an orange ovarian cyst
the most common Paget's disease. It is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones paget's disease of bone
a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions parkinson's disease
a rare group of blistering autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes pemphigus
an ulcer (defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm) of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful peptic ulcer
a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is known to last for a duration of approximately 6 weeks before subsiding pertussis
a connective tissue disorder involving the growth of fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis affecting as many as 1-4% of men peyronie's disease
an inflammation of the throat or pharynx. In most cases it is painful and the initial infection can extend for a lengthy time period, and is often referred to as a sore throat pharyngitis
a condition where, in men, the male foreskin cannot be fully retracted from the head of the penis. The term may also refer to clitoral phimosis in women, whereby the clitoral hood cannot be retracted, limiting exposure of the glans clitoris phimosis
a cyst or abscess near or on the natal cleft of the buttocks that often contains hair and skin debris pilonidal sinus
an obstetric catastrophe (complication of pregnancy), wherein the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother. It is the most common cause of late pregnancy bleeding placental abruption
also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs pleurisy
an abnormal inflammatory condition of the lung. It is often characterized as including inflammation of the parenchyma of the lung (that is, the alveoli) and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid (consolidation and exudation) pneumonia
a potential medical emergency wherein air or gas is present in the pleural cavity. It can also occur as the result of disease or injury to the lung, or due to a puncture to the chest wall pneumothorax
a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway) porphyria
a medical condition where hypertension arises in pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association with significant amounts of protein in the urine preeclampsia
a collection of physical, psychological, and emotional symptoms related to a woman's menstrual cycle premenstrual syndrome
the condition where the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects with age presbyopia
a potentially harmful and painful medical condition in which the erect penis or clitoris does not return to its flaccid state, despite the absence of both physical and psychological stimulation, within four hours priapism
a chronic, non-contagious disease that affects mainly the skin psoriasis
a parasitic insect species notorious for infesting human genitals. The species may also live on other areas with hair, including the eyelashes. They feed exclusively on blood. Humans and gorillas are the only known hosts of this parasite pubic lice
a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism) pulmonary embolism
an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature, leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms, all of which are exacerbated by exertion pulmonary hypertension
an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pyelum (pelvis) of the kidney (nephros in Greek). If the infection is severe, the term "urosepsis" is used interchangeably (sepsis being a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection pyelonephritis
a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance or texture rashes
a vascular disorder that affects blood flow to the extremities (the fingers, toes, nose and ears) when exposed to cold temperatures or in response to psychological stress raynaud's disease
an autoimmune condition that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body reactive arthritis
a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue retinal detachment
a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks the joints producing an inflammatory synovitis that often progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints rheumatoid arthritis
a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity rickets
a fungal infection of the skin in humans and domestic animals such as sheep and cattle ringworm
a chronic condition characterized by facial erythema (redness). Pimples are sometimes included as part of the definition. Unless it affects the eyes, it is typically a harmless cosmetic condition. rosacea
(meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease (as the sixth rash-causing childhood disease) and (confusingly) baby measles, or three-day fever, is a disease of children, generally under two years old roseola infantum
commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus rubella
also known as the itch, is a contagious ectoparasite skin infection characterized by superficial burrows and intense pruritus (itching) scabies
a disease caused by an erythrogenic exotoxin released by Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever
a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a neuropsychiatric and mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality schizophrenia
Sciatica (or sciatic neuritis) is a set of symptoms including pain that may be caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that give rise to the sciatic nerve, or by compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve itself sciatica
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis (or hardening), vascular alterations, and autoantibodies scleroderma
a medical condition in which a person's spine is curved from side to side and may also be rotated scoliosis
a skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and trunk causing scaly, flaky, itchy, red skin. It particularly affects the sebum-gland rich areas of skin seborrheic dermatitis
the purulent invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis septic arthritis
commonly known as shingles and also known as zona, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a limited area on one side of the body, often in a stripe shingles
a condition consisting of infection or inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues sinusitis
(also known as "Mikulicz disease," and "Sicca syndrome") is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva sjogren's syndrome
(sometimes called an acute cerebrovascular attack) is the rapidly developing loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain stroke
bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result from head injury subarachnoid hemorrhage
a type of hematoma, a form of traumatic brain injury in which blood gathers within the inner meningeal layer of the dura mater (the outer protective covering of the brain) subdural hemorrhage
a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. almost always through sexual contact, although there are examples of congenital syphilis via transmission from mother to child in utero syphilis
an inflammatory disease of blood vessels (most commonly large and medium arteries of the head). It is a form of vasculitis temporal arteritis
an umbrella term covering acute or chronic inflammation of the temporomandibular joint, which connects the mandible to the skull temporomandibular joint disorder
an inflammation of a tendon is a type of tendinopathy often confused with the more common tendinosis, which has similar symptoms but requires different treatment tendinitis
an inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath (called the synovium) that surrounds a tendon. Symptoms of tenosynovitis include pain, swelling and difficulty moving the particular joint where the inflammation occurs tenosynovitis
an inherited autosomal recessive blood disease thalassemia
the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system thrombosis
an infection of the tonsils and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever tonsillitis
or wry neck, is a condition in which the head is tilted toward one side (cervical Lateral flexion), and the chin is elevated and turned toward the opposite side (cervical extension) torticollis
("mini stroke”) is a change in the blood supply to a particular area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours. If symptoms persist longer, then it is categorized as a stroke transient ischemic attack
sometimes referred to as "trich", is a common cause of vaginitis. It is a sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis trichomoniasis
tic douloureux (also known as prosopalgia) is a neuropathic disorder of one or both of the trigeminal nerves trigeminal neuralgia
a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body tuberculosis
a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores, in the colon ulcerative colitis
a narrowing of the urethra caused by injury or disease such as urinary tract infections or other forms of urethritis urethral stricture
also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate urinary retention
a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract urinary tract infection
a kind of skin rash notable for dark red, raised, itchy bumps urticaria
a non-cancerous (benign) tumor that originates from the smooth muscle layer (myometrium) and the accompanying connective tissue of the uterus uterine fibroids
a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common vaginal thrush
an abnormal enlargement of the vein that is in the scrotum draining the testicles varicocele
veins that have become enlarged and tortuous. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins can occur elsewhere varicose veins
a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by inflammatory destruction of blood vessels. Both arteries and veins are affected. Lymphangitis is sometimes considered a type of vasculitis vasculitis
a chronic disorder that causes depigmentation in patches of skin. It occurs when the melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin pigmentation which are derived from the neural crest, die or are unable to function vitiligo
a mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). Typically this mass will appear on the junction of the anterior and middle two-thirds of the vocal fold, where contact is most forceful vocal fold nodule
an inflammation of the vagina. It can that can result in discharge, itching and pain, and is often associated with an irritation or infection of the vulva. It is ususally due to infection vulvovaginitis
(also known as verruca) is generally a small, rough tumor, typically on hands and feet but often other locations, that can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister warts
a form of vasculitis that affects the lungs, kidneys and other organs. Due to its end-organ damage, it can be a serious disease that requires long-term immunosuppression wegener's granulomatosis
an often very painful condition of the testes involving inflammation, swelling and frequent infection orchitis
Created by: NeGaJJang