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Concept Dis. Ch 8

Communicable Diseases

indirect disease transmission would be catching a virus through contaminated water or insects
immunization is effective against disease because it renders the population non-susceptible
isolation of infected individuals is often ineffective because infected individuals are often unrecognized
regulation and inspection of food preparation is an example of control of indirect transmission
Effectively controlling a disease primarily requires a knowledge of disease's cause & method of transmission
congenital syphilis may cause fetal death
Gonorrhea mainly affects mucous membranes
herpes cannot be diagnosed through biopsy
most common sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia
AIDS attacks the immune system through destroying T lymphocyte
AIDS victims are susceptible to widespread infection from organisms that pose no threat to healthy person
homosexual females are not at an elevated risk for contracting AIDS
Blood donation by individuals considered to be at an elevated risk for AIDS is banned because infected blood can be impossible to detect
disease transmitted from person to person communicable disease
communicable disease in which small numbers of cases are continually present in a population endemic disease
communicable disease affecting concurrently large numbers of persons in a population epidemic disease
direct physical contact or by means of droplet spread method: communicable disease transmission
primary methods used to control diseases when effective methods of immunization are not available identification, isolation, & treatment
virus attacks/destroys T lymphocytes, compromising cell-mediated immunity & leading to infections & some tumors AIDS
spiral organism causing syphilis treponema pallidum
clinical manifestation of chancre primary syphilis
clinical manifestation of systemic infection w/skin rash & enlarged lymph nodes secondary syphilis
clinical manifestation of late destructive lesions in internal organs, such as brain/heart tertiary syphilis
clinical manifestation of urethritis, cervicitis, pharyngitis, proctitis gonorrhea
clinical manifestation of superficial vesicles/ulcers on external genetalia & genital tract infection; regional lymph nodes often enlarged/tender herpes
clinical manifestation of cervicitis & urethritis chlamydia
Tests used to diagnose syphilis demonstration of treponemes in chancre & serological tests
Tests used to diagnose gonorrhea culture of organisms from site of infections & non-culture tests
Tests used to diagnose herpes demonstration of intranuclear inclusions in infected cells, virus cultures & serological tests in some cases
Tests used to diagnose chlamydia detection of antigens in cervical/urethral secretions, florescence microscopy, cultures & non culture tests
major complications of syphilis include damage to cardiovascular system; nervous system in tertiary syphilis may be fatal
major complications of gonorrhea include disseminated bloodstream infection, tubal infection w/impaired fertility, & spread of infection to prostate & epididymides
major complications of herpes include spread from infected mother to infant
major complications of chlamydia include tubal infection w/impaired fertility & epididymitis
chlamydia, syphilis & gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics
herpes can be treated with antiviral drug shortens infection, not curative
virus that caused most cases of AIDS in the world HIV1
infections are more prevalent in West Africa HIV2
first cases of AIDs identified in 1981
HIV was identified in 1983
blood test to detect HIV became available in 1985
RNA virus belonging to class called retroviruses HIV
in HIV the viral RNA & important enzyme (reverse transcriptase) are enclosed in a capsid in core of virus
cuts & assembles virus protein into small segments that surround viral RNA, forming infectious virus particles that bud from infected HIV cells HIV protease
HIV invades CD4+ cells & becomes part of cell DNA which means that the individual is infected for life
HIV virus proliferates in infected cells & sheds virus particles, which means virus present in blood & bodily fluids
body forms HIV-antibody, which means antibody is marker of infection but is not protective
HIV's progressive destruction of helper T cells means compromised cell-mediated immunity
with HIV when immune defenses collapse it means more susceptible to opportunistic infections & neoplasms
amount of viral RNA in blood of an HIV infected person reflects extent of viral replication in lymphoid tissue throughout body
blood plasma of a person with an acute HIV infection would have over a million virus particles per million
blood plasma of a person being treated with agents effective against HIV virus would have extremely low levels of virus
estimates extent of damage to HIV infected immune system determination of # of T lymphocytes in the blood
infection in immunocompromised person caused by organism normally nonpathogenic/limited pathogenicity opportunistic infection
drug used to treat HIV infections by binding to reverse transcriptase, blocking DNA polymerase nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
converts DNA to RNA DNA polymerase
look alike compounds analogs
nucleoside analogs that resemble normal nucleosides that virus uses to construct DNA nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors synthesis is disrupted when analog substitutes for the required nucleoside
HIV drug that blocks enzyme that cuts viral protein into segments & assembles them around viral RNA to form infectious virus particle protease inhibitors
protease inhibitors cause the virus particle to be improperly constructed & is not infectious