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Anatomy, Physiology

Chapter 5

anatomy study of body parts, how the body is made, and what it is made of
physiology the study of how the body functions and how all the body parts work independentely together
What is the two categories of needs? basi psychosocial needs (mind) and basic physiological needs (body)
anatomical position when a person is standing facing you, with palms out and feet together
What are some examples of the body's ability to maintain homeostatis a)body temp. stays very constant b)BP stays within specific limits c)chemistry of the blood stays within certain normal limits
When does the balance of our inner environment change? Only when illness, disease, injury, or emotional disturbance occur
anterior toward front
ventral on the abdominal side
superficial on or near the surface
deep distant from the surface
posterior toward the back
dorsal on the back side
superior toward the head
inferior toward the feet
homeostasis the body's attempt to keep its interal environment stable and in balance
protoplasm the basic substance of life.
What are the 3 main part of a cell? 1)nucleus 2)cytoplasm 3)cell membrane
nucleus directs the activities of the cell, like a command center. It directs the growth of the cell and cell division
chromosomes threadlike structures that carry DNA
cytoplasm material surrounding the nucleus of a cell
metabolism process of the living cell in which oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is given off (called the work of the cell)
Tissue group of the same type of cells functioning in the same way
What are 5 categories that tissues are grouped into? 1)epithelial 2)connective 3)nervous 4)blood and lymph 5)muscular
cell membrane the edge of the cell. It keeps the protoplams in but allows certain other materials to pass in and out of the cell.
metabolism process of the living cell in which oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is given off (called the work of the cell)
Organ (tissues combine to form it) it is a body part where two or more tissues work together to perform a particular function
System consist of a group of organs that perform the same function.
Name the body systems 1)integumentary 2)digestive 3)skeletal 4)respiratory 5)muscular 6)circulatory 7)nervous 8)endocrine 9)urinary 10)reproductive
What happens when cancer invades the cell's normal mechanisms that control rate of growth? cell division and movements are destroyed.
What is noncancerous tumors called? canerous tumors? benign and malignant
carcinogens substances that causes cancer
referred to as a disease of the old cancer (50% of all cancer cases occur after the age of 65)
cure to ccorect or remove a problem
control to stop or limit growth
palliation to relieve symptoms
rebabilitation to restore or return function
Name the treatments for cancer a) surgery b)raidation c)chemotherapy
Radiation therapy may be either (blank) or (blank) external or internal
External therapy a machine bemas high-energy rays toward the cancer site. The treatment ise painless, but side effects frequently results
internal therapy very small amount of radioactive material is placed inside the body and left for a short period of time. This type of therapy is carried out in the accute care hospital
chemotherapy use of medications to treat disease
What does the medication from chemotherapy do? interfere with the duplication and growth of the rapidly multiplying cancer cells. This affects normal cells as well
What chemotherapy drug affect bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, hair, skin, reproductive system, urinary tract, emotional state
What are appliative measures used for? to reduce pain and discomfort in cancer patients.
Report these side effect at once fever, sudden weight loss or gain, bleeding or hemorrhage, changes in vital signs, intense or severe pain, changes in behavior, severe constipation or diarrhea
stimuli an action that causes a response in an organ or organism
sclera white of the eye
vitreous humor transparent liquid that fills the eyeball
aqueous humor fluid in the space between the cornea and lens
cornea clea pasticlike covering
iris circle of color
pupil the opening in the center of the iris through which light enters
lens directly behind the pupil, focuses the imagge upon the retina
retina back part of the eye; receives image and sends impulses to the optic nerve
optic nerve receives impulses from the rods and cones in the retina and transmits them to the brain
presbyopia lends loses its ability to focus clearly due to loss of elasticity
glaucoma increased pressure within the eye that can lead to blindness due to pressure on the optic nerve
What are the 3 main parts of the ear? outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear
outer ear leads to the small opening of the middle ear. The outer ear and middle ear is separated by the eardrum
How do we hear? Sound waves strike the eardrum (tympanic membrane), causing it to vibrate. The vibration causes the tiny bones to move. Through a complex process, sound stimuli are transmitted to nerves that transport the signal to the brain
What is one sensory experience that does not change with age? pain
"stoic" people (like the Asian people) who are stoic do not express their emotions outwardly, especially pain.
What is one definition of pain? it is whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he say it does.
How should an unconscious resident be treated? like he could understand everything. Introduce yourself and explain what you are going to do. Avoid chatting with staff member and excluding resident.
How is a pain scale from 0 to 10 is rated? 0 no pain, 10 beign the worst pain you can imagine.
What are some words to describe what pain feels like? dull, aching, stabbing, piercing, electrical, throbbing, and cramping
Who should you tell if the resident is in pain? the charge nurse
sensory deprivation loss or lack of stimulation from the environment. Ex: blind person is deprived from visual stimulation
otologist hearing specialist
Created by: Tiffastic