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AP Govt CPHS Chap 10

AP Govt. CPHS Chap. 10

Judicial Review Power of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states.
Judiciaary Act of 1789 Established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.
Maybury v. Madison (1803) Case in which the Supreme Court first asserted the power of judicial review in finding that the congressional statute extending the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
Trial Courts Courts of original jurisdiction where cases begin.
Appellate Courts Courts that generally review only findings of law made by lower courts.
Jurisdiction Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in any particular case.
Original jurisdiction The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. Courts determine the facts of a case under their original jurisdiction.
Appellate Jurisdiction The power vested in an appellate court to review and/or revise the decision of a lower court.
Criminal Law Codes of behavior related to the protection of property and individual safety.
Civil Law Codes of behavior related to business and contractual relationships between groups and individuals.
Constitutional Courts Federal courts specifically created by the U.S. Constitution or by Congress pursuant to its authority in Article III.
Legislative Courts Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes, such as the Court of Military Appeals.
Brief A document containing the legal written arguments in a case filed with a court by a party prior to a hearing or trial.
Precedents Prior judicial decisions that serve as a rule for sttling subsequent cases of a similar nature.
Stare Decisis In court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions in new cases.
Senatorial Courtesy Process by which presidents generally defer selection of district cour judges to the choice of senators of their own party who represent the state where the vacancy occurs.
Strict Constructionist An approach to constitutional interpretation that emphasizes the Framers' original intentions.
Writ of Certioari A request for the Court to order up the records from a lower court to review the case.
Rule of Four At least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard.
Solicitor General The fourth-ranking member of the Department of Justice; responsible for handling all appeals on behalf of the U.S. government to the Supreme Court.
Amicus Curiae "Friend of the court"; amici may file briefs or even appear to argue their interests orally before the court.
Judicial Restraint A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues courts should allow the decisions of other branches of goverment to stand, even when they offend a judge's own sense of principles.
Judicial Activism A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues judges should use their power broadly to further justice, especially in the areas of equality and personal liberty.
Judicial Implementation Refers to how and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual public policies affecting more than the immediate parties to a lawsuit.
Created by: Rebecca3