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Concept Dis. Ch 2

Cells & Tissues: Structure & Function in Hlth & Disease

tissues group of similar cells joined to perform a specific function
organs group of different tissues organized to perform a specific function
organ systems group of organs that function together as unit
various organ systems are integrated to form a functioning organism
dysfunction at any the level of tissue, organ, organ system or orgransim can cause disease
cells having different functions differ in ___ but all have different features in common structure
nucleus consists of ___ stored in a cell genetic information
directs the metabolic function of the cell the nucleus
structures in the nucleus' cytoplasm carry out the directions for the cell
organelle small structure in cytoplasm which play important function within cell
filaments of structural protein, contained in cytoplasm, form the cytoskeleton of the cell
cytoskeleton framework of the cell
some cells also contain filaments of contractile protein
cytoplasm, nucleus & organelles are surrounded by membranes composed of lipid & protein molecules, seperating structures from one another
nucleus contains two different types of nucleic acid combined with protein
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA nucleic acid that carries genetic information
nuclear chromatin DNA network of granules
DNA is contained in the chromosomes of nuclei
appears long & thin in nondividing cell; appearing as network of granules DNA molecules
riboneucleic acid RNA nucleic acid contained in nuclei of cells
component of messenger, transfer and ribosomal RNA molecules
the RNA nucleus is seperated from cytoplasm by double-layered nuclear membrane
small pores in the nuclear membrane permit comminucation between nucleus and cytoplasm
cytoplasm of cell consists of mass of protplasm surrounded by cell membrane
cell membrane acts selectively to allow some materials into/out of cell, while restricts passge of others
cytoplam can contain various organelles & may also contain products that accumulate within the cell, such as glycogen/fat
mitochondria, ER, Golgi app, lysosomes, centrioles, cytoskeleton tubules/filaments are most important organelles in cytoplasm
some disease have been associated with abnormalities in cytoplasmic organelles
mitochondria rod-shaped structures in cell
contains enzymes capable of converting food materials into energy by oxidizing them mitochondria
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) high-energy phosphate compound liberates energy to power numerous cellular metabolic processes
cell uses energy, created by mitchondria, to manufacture ATP
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mass of hollow, tubular channels within cytoplasm, frequently bordered by ribosomes
network communicates with both nuclear membrane & cell membrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) has numerous ribosomes attached to external surface
function is to synthesize protein that will be secrete by the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
ribosomes small cytoplasmic organelles serving as site of protein synthesis
usually attached to RER but may also be free in cytoplasm ribosomes
digestive enzymes & antibody proteins are produced by protein synthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membranes contain enzymes that synthesize lipids & other substances
lacks ribosomes attached to external surface smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Golgi apparatus group of membrane-lined sacs in cytoplasm of cell near nucleus
sacs of Golgi apparatus are connected with tubules of RER
pass through RER tubules into Golgi apparatus proteins produced by ribosomes attached to RER
large carbohydrated molecules synthesized & combined with proteins, then formed into secretory granules & discharged from cell, in Golgi apparatus
lysis dissolving
soma body
lysosomes cytoplasmic organelles filled with protein disolving enzymes
Golgi apparatus makes lysosomes
"digestive system" of the cell are the lysosomes
lysosomes break down material brought into the cell by phagocytosis
phagocytosis ingestion of particulate of foreign material by cell
vacuole cavity or vesicle in the cytoplasm of a cell containing fluid
phagocytic vacuole membrane-lined cavity where ingested particle becomes enclosed during phagocytosis
lysosomes merge with phagocytic vacuole, & their celle membranes fuse allowing for digestive enzymes to flow in & digest engulfed material
prevents injury of cell by preventing digestive enzymes from leaking into cytoplasm digestion taking place entirely within vacuole
structures within cytoplasm of cells that carry out functions of cell are known as organelles
cell controlled by this structure, which houses genetic material behind double-layered membrane nucleus
cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules, microfilaments &intermediate filaments
process by which stratified epithelium produces a protective layer of fibrous protein keratinization
long, star-shaped cells that interface to form framework of CNS astrocytes
mesoderm of the developing embryo will eventually produce bladder
how many types of nucleotides compose DNA four
active transport is the opposite of osmosis because it requires energy to be expended
unnatural death and necrosis of cells due to external factors apoptosis
as cells age they become less resistant to injury
in some diseases lysosomal enzymes are not able to function properly causing incompletely digested material to accumulate with lysosomes disruptin cell function
peroxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles that contain enzymes to break down various potentially toxic intracellular molecules
hydrogen peroxide H2O2 is potentially toxic byproduct of enzyme action
promtply decomposed by one of enzymes in peroxisome hydrogen peroxide H2O2
centrioles short cylindrical structures adjecent to nucleus, move to opposite poles of cell
participate in formation of mitotic spindle during first cell division centrioles
spindle fibers attach to chromosomes causing them to seperate during course of cell division
cytoskeleton consists of 3 diff types of protein tubules & filaments; responsible for cell movements
microtubules largest cytoskeleton components
microfilaments smallest cytoskeleton components
intermediate filaments small, tough protein filaments which reinforce interior of cell, hold organelles in proper position & resp for characteristic shape of each specific type of cell
five different types of intermediate filaments can be identified in cells by specific histological techniques
characteristic of each type of cell each type of intermediate filament
identification & characterization of intermediate filaments often provides diagnostic & prognostic information
in Alzheimer disease intermediate filaments exhibit characteristic abnormalities establishing diagnosis
useful in diagnosing tumors identification of type of intermediate filament
epithelium groups of cells clesly joined together, in single layer or many layers thick
cover exterior & line interior body surfaces that communicate with outside the body epithelial cells
parenchymal cell functional cell of an organ or tissue
parenchyma functional cells of organ, contrasted with connective & supporting tissue forming its framework
endothelium layer of simple squamous epithelium lining interiors of heart & blood/lymphatic vessels
mesothelium layer flat squamous epithelial cells lining surfaces of plueral, pericardial, & peritoneal cavities
mesoderm middle germ layer of embryo, giving rise to specific organs & tissues
endothelium & mesothelium characterized as epithelium, but actually more closely related to connective tissue
endothelium & mesothelium arise along with connective tissues from mesoderm
epithelial cells are supported by a thin basement membrane
cells nourished by diffusion of material from capillaries in underlying connective tissue; there are no blood vessels in epithelium
simple squamous epithelium can only be found forming lining of pulmonary air sacs
simple columnar epithelium lines most of gastrointestinal tract
pseudostratified columnar epithelium is a type of simple columnar epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium cells are tightly packed, their nuclei appear to lie at different levels
lines most of respiratory tract & present in few other areas; often ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium give appearance of stratification
covers external body covering, lines oral cavity, esophagus & vagina stratifies squamous epithelium
stratified epithelium is named for appearance of most superficial cell layer
designed "stratified squamous" even though deeper layers are cubiodal cells stratified epithelium
keratin insoluable sulfur-containing protein that is principal constiuent of hair/nails
transitional epithelium consists of layer larger superficial cells covering deeper layer of cuboidal cells
lines bladder & other parts of urinary tract transitional epithelium
become flattened when bladder distended & resume original shape when bladder empty superficial cells of transitional epithelium
all types of epithelium perform a protective function
exocrine gland discharges secretions through duct onto mucosal surface
endocrine gland discharges secretion directly into bloodstream
matrix extracellular material in which connective tissue cells are embedded
collagen fibers long, flexible fibers composed of protein
elastin protein that is chief constituent of elastic fibers
similar to collagen elastin
collagen fibers are strong but do not stretch
elastic fibers readily stretch & return to former shape when stretching force released
composed of elastin & are not as strong as collagen elastic fibers
reticulin fibers thin & delicate protein substance that is a constituent of reticular tissue
include various loose & dense fibrous, elastic, reticular, adipose, cartilage & bone connective & supporting tissues
hematopoietic tissue & lymphatic tissue are classified as connective tissue originating from the mesoderm
tissues involved in the formation of blood cells hematopoietic tissue
tissues involved in the formation of lymphocytes lymphatic tissue
loose fibrous tissue forms subcutaneous tissue and fills in around organs
ligaments & tendons are composed of dense fibrous tissue
reinforce joints & attached muscles to bone ligaments & tendons
the most widely distributed fibrous tissue loose
forms membrane wrapped around walls of blood vessels & characteristic distensibility of large arteries elastic tissue
forms part of the walls of the trachea & bronchi elastic membranes
fine mesh-work of a specific type of fiber, which forms the supporting framework of various organs reticular tissue
reticular tissues makes up organs such as liver, spleen & lymph nodes
variety of loose fibrous tissue containing large numbers of fat cells adipose tissue
functions as padding & insulation; is a stored form of energy adipose/fat
type of supporting tissue in which cells dispersed in dense matrix cartilage
hyaline cartilage translucent, bluish-white, consisting of cells embedded in apparently homogeneous matrix
most common type of cartilage hyaline
covers ends of bones at movable joints, forms greater part of laryngeal/tracheal cartilages, & connects ribs to sternum hyaline cartilage
yellowish flexible cartilage having the matrix infiltrated in all directions by a network of fibers elastic cartilage
elastic cartilage if found, chiefly, in the external ear, Eustachian tube, & some cartilages of larynx/epiglottis
elastic fibers impart ___ which is lacking in other cartilages flexibility
contains many dense collagen bundles embedded in matrix; found in areas of weight-bearing stress fibrocartilage
fibrocartilage forms the discs between vertebral bodies and cartilages of the knee joints
highly specialized, rigid,largely calcareous connective tissue bone
means containing calcium carbonate calcareous
contains hematopoietic cells, which are permeated with calcium salts matrix of bone
contains filament of specialized intracellular contractile proteins muscle cells
the contractile proteins are actin & myosin
protein found especially in microfilaments, as those comprising myofibrils actin
actin is active in cellular movement, the maintenance of cell shape and muscular contraction
fibrous globulin of muscle that can split ATP myosin
myosin reacts with actin to form actomyosin
viscus contractile complex; concerned together with ATP in muscular contraction actomyosin
smooth muscle functions automatically & not under conscious control
striated muscle moves skeleton & under voluntary control
cardiac muscle found only in the heart; functions automatically & not under conscious control
lacks cross striations, made up of elongated spindle-shaped cells w/central nucleus smooth muscle
marked by transverse dark and light bands, includes skeletal and usually cardiac muscle striated muscle
elongated striated muscle fibers consists of single cell having intrinsic rhythm of contraction/relaxation even when isolated; branched ends to other such cells by intercalated disks cardiac muscle
neuron one of cells that constitute nervous tissue, transmit nervous impulses
neuroglia supporting nervous tissue cells
astrocytes star-shaped cells with numeroud highly branched processes interlace to form meshwork
oligodendroglia small sellc with scanty cytoplasm surround individual nerve cells in CNS
microglia phagocytic cells of nervous system
stroma tissue that forms framework of organ
trophoblast cell derived from fertilized ovum that gives rise to fetal membranes & contribute to formation of placenta
inner cell mast group cells dervied from fertilized ovum & destined to form embryo
germ layers 3 layers of cells derived from inner cell mass
ectoderm outer germ layerin embryo, gives rise to specific organs & tissues
entoderm inner germ layer of embryo, gives rise to specific organs & tissues
forms external cover of body & various organs that bring person into contact with external enviroment ectoderm
forms "internal linings" entoderm
layers of cells sandwished btwn ectoderm & endoderm mesoderm
genetic code information carried by codons on DNA molecules in chromosomes
chromosomes are composed of DNA combined with protein
nucleotide basic structural unit of DNA
consists of phosphate group linked to , joined to a base nucleotide
deoxyribose a 5-Carbon sugar
base solution containing excess of hydroxyl ions & having a pH greater than 7.0
purine base contains fused double ring of carbon & nitrogen atoms; type of DNA base
pyrimidine base contains only single ring; type of DNA base
purine bases are adenine & guanine
pyrimidine bases are thyamine & cytosine
there are 4 different nucleotides in DNA each containing a different base
DNA molecules consists of 2 strands of DNA heald together by weak chemical attractions btwn adjent bases of adjacent chains
the chemical structures os the bases is such so that adenine can only pair with thymine
complementary bases allow for conservation of your genetic code
the chemical structures os the bases is such so that guanine can only pair with cytosine
in DNA strands, as a spiral staircase, the complementary bases form the steps
in DNA strands, as a spiral staircase, the phosphate groups form the two railings
as a cell prepared to divide, the double strands of DNA duplicate themselves
as a cell prepared to divide, the two chains of DNA separate & each chain serves as a model for the synthesis of a new chain
because of base pairing, arrangements of nucleotides in original chain determine how nucleotide will reassmble to form a new chain
process of duplication forms 2 double strands, each containing 1 of original strands & 1 newly formed strand
DNA in the nucleus "tells the cell what to do" by directing synthesis of enzymes & other proteins by ribosomes in cytoplasm
messenger RNA or mRNA carries message encoded in DNA to ribosomes in cytoplasm
mRNA consists of single strand strand, 5-C sugar ribose & uracil as the base
during synthesis of mRNA the DNA chain partially separates & serves as model on which mRNA is assembled
information transported on mRNA is exact copy of genetic info possessed by nuclear DNA
mRNA strand leaves nucleus through pores in nuclear membrane
once out of nuclear membrane mRNA attaches to ribosomes in cytoplasm
ribosomes in the cytoplasm are small nucleoprotein particles where enzymes & other proteins are contructed from individual amino acids
information in mRNA strand that attaches to ribosomes in cytoplasm determines combination of amino acids require to assemble the protein
amino acids are transported to the ribosomes by means of transfer RNA or tRNA
tRNA "picks up" required amino acids from cytoplasm & transfers them to the ribosomes where assembled in proper order according to mRNA info
diffusion movement of solute from more concentrated to more dilute solution
movement of water molecules from dilute solution to more concentrated solution osmosis
diffusion & osmosis are both passive processes, that do not require cell to expend energy
if membrane is freely permeable to both water/solute particles, solute particles diffuse from higher solute concentration on rght side of membrane into lower solute on lft side
in freely permeable membrane, at same time solute is diffusing, water particles diffuse in opposite direction, from more dilute on rght side to more concentrated on lft
at equilibrium the concentration of water & solute particles are the same on both sides on membrane
even after equilibrium is acheived, water & solute particles continue to move in both direction, equally
if membrane not permeable to solute particles on one side, water molecules moves by osmosis from left to more concentrated right side of membrane
osmotic activity/osmotic pressure pressure required to stop osmosis through semipermeable membrane btwn solution & pure solvent
the more concentrated the solution the higher its osmotic pressure
osmolarity reflects # of dissolved particles in solution
osmolarity of bodily fluids is usually expressed in milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L) because contain low concentrations of dissolved particles
movement of water/solute btwn extracellular & intracellular fluid is regulated by the cell membrane
osmolarity of extracellular & intracellular fluids is the same; two fluid compartments in equilibrium
solutes in extracellular fluid which contribute to its osmolarity are Na+ (sodium), Cl- (chloride), & HCO3- (bicarbonate) ions
major intracellular ions are K+ (potassium) & PO4-3 (phosphate)
sodium-potassium ions differences on two sides of cell membrane are important for normal cell functions
tonicity effective osmotic pressure equivalent
isontonic solution osomtically = to patient's body fluids & can safely be administered to patient
only solutions used for intravenous administration isotonic solutions
hypertonic solution one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference
cells exposed to hypertonic solutions shrink because water moves by osmosis into hypertonic fluid
hypotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference
cells exposed to hypotonic solutions swell as water moves by osmosis from hypotonic fluid into cells where osmolarity is higher
osmotic flow of water into cells, such as red cells, may be so great that cell membranes of overdistended cells may rupture, causeing red cells to collapse & hemoglobin to leak from cells
if osmolarity of ECF higher than that within cells water flows by osmosis from cell into ECF, and vice versa
in disease osmolarity of ECF may be high/low leading to secondary changes in water content of cells & impair their function
in active transport the cell must expend energy to move against concentration gradient
many metabolic processes depend on active transport of ions or molecules
pinocytosis liquid absorption by cells which a segment of cell membrane forms small pockets & engulfs liquid
atrophy reduction in size of cells in response to diminished function, inadequate hormonal stimulation, or reduced blood supply
hypertrophy increase in size of cells without actual increase in # of cells
hyperplasia increase in the number of cells
hyperplasia occurs in response to increased demand
metaplasia change from one type of cell to another type, better able to tolerate adverse enviromental condition
dysplasia abnormal maturation of cells
neoplasia pathological process results in formation/growth of tumor
if increased demand placed on cells to inactivate/detoxify drugs/chemicals they respond by synthesizing more SER enzymes to handle demand more efficiently
most common morphological abnormalities of an injured cell are cell swelling & fatty change
normally functioning cell actively transports potassium into cell & moves sodium out
if a cell is injured & unable to function normally the transport mechanism begins to fail
cell swelling occurs, if a cell is injured, when sodium diffused into cell, & water moves along with it
if cell swelling continues, the cell may accumulate fluid-filled vacuoles which may eventually rupture
fatty change to a cell may occur if enzyme systems that metabolize fat are imparied causing fat droplets within cytoplasm
common manifestation of liver injury fatty change
necrosis structural changes associated with cell death
all necrotic cells are dead
a dead cell is not necessarily necrotic because structural changes that characterize cell death take several hours to develop
on histological exams necrotic cells are easily recognised because structural & staining characteristics are quite different from normal cells
all normal cells have a predetermined life span; programmed to die after specific period of time
number of functional cells in body tissues is determined by balance of proliferation of new cells & death of older "worn-out" cells
apoptosis programmed cell death that occurs after cell has lived its normal life span
if genes that regulate apoptosis become deranged/cease to function properly, cells may continue to proliferate instead of dying as they should
excessive #s of cells may accumulate in organs/tissues, which disrupts their functions & leads to disease
failure of normal mechanisms regulating apoptosis appear to result in some tumors
series of messages within chromosome that regulates various functions of cell genetic code
genetic code is contained within structure of DNA & transmitted to each newly formed cell in cell division
within the cytoplasm are numerous small structures that have important role in cell functions organelle
increase in size of tissue/organ caused by increase in the number of cells hyperplasia
condition in which development/maturation of cells disturbed & abnormal dysplasia
movement of dissolved particles from a more concentrated to a more dilute solution diffusion
major type of tissue whose major functions are protection, absorption and secretion epithelial tissue
major type of tissue whose major functions are connecting/supporting tissue(s), distensibility of arteries, & forming supporting framework of organs connective/supportive tissues
major type of tissue whose major functions are forming walls of hollow internal organs, move the skeleton, and forms cardiac tissue muscle tissue
major type of tissue whose major functions are to support and transmit nerve impulses nerve tissue
increase in both cell size and number due to a specific demand vs. an individual cells varying in size and shape from development/maturation difference between hyperplasia & dysplasia