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reproductive path

reproductive pathology

endometriosis characterized by the prsence and proliferation of ectopic endometrial tissue; non-neoplastic and has no relation to endometrial cancer
endometriosis may be caused by retrograde dissemination of endometrial fragments through the fallopian tube during menstruation; occurs most often in the pelvic area; manifest clinically by severe menstural related pain
endometrial hyperplasia abnormal proliferation of endometrial glands, usualy caused by excess estrogen stimulation; most often manifest clinically by postmenopausal bleeding; sometimes a precursor lesion of endometrial atypia
leiomyoma most common uterine tumor and most common of all tumors in women
leiomyoma benign neoplasm, is estrogen sensitive; often increases in size during pregnancy and decrfeases following menopause
endometrial carcinoma most common gynocological malignancy, occurs in older age group (55-65); predisposed by prolonged estrogen stimulation, obesity, diabetes, and HTN
bartholin cyst due to obstruction of bartholin ducts, can be secondarily infected, most often by N. gonorrheae or, less often, staph
vulvar dystrophies group of disorders of epithelial growth that often present with leukoplakia
lichen sclerousus and hyperplastic dystrophy of vulva no malignant potential
Atypical hyperplastic dystrophy of vulva premalignant ; pruiritis and leukoplakia
candidiasis most common form of vaginitis, cuased by candida albicans (normal flora)
candidiasis assocaited with DM, pregnancy, broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, oral contraceptive use and immunosuppresion
candidiasis white, patch like mucosal lesion, thick white discharge and pruritus
papillary hidradenoma most common benign tumor of vuvla; originates from apocrine sweat glands; presents as a labial nodule; may ulcerate. cured by excision
condyloma acuminatum benign squamous cell papilloma caused by HPV(usually 6 and 11), multiple wart like lesions
condyloma acuminatum characterized histologically by koilocytes, expanded epithelial cells twith perinuclear clearing
squamous cell carcinoma most common malignant tumor of the vulva, peak occurence in older women, may be preceded by vulvar dystrophy; often associated with HPV infection type 16,18,31,33
sarcoma botryoides rare variant of rhabdomyosarcoma; occurs in children younger than 5, presens as multiple polypoid masses resembling a bunch of grapes projecting into vagina, often protruding from the vulva
leiomyosarcoma bulky tumor with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, typically arising de novo
leiomyosarcoma highly aggressive tumor with tendancy to recur, may protrude from the cervix and bleed
polycystic ovarian syndrome stein-leventhal syndrome
polycystic ovarian syndrome increased LH production leads to anovulation, hyperandrogenism due to deranged steroid synthesis; manifests clinically by amenorrhea, infertility, obesity and hirsutism
follicular cysts distension of unruptured graafian follicle. may be associated with hyperestrinism and endometrial hyperplasia
corpus luteum cysts hemorrhage into sorpus luteum, menstrual irregularity
theca-lutein cysts often bilateral and multiple. due to gonadotropin stimulation. Associated with choriocarcinoma and moles
chocolate cysts blood containing cyst from ovarian endometriosis
dysgerminoma analogous to male seminoma
yolk sac tumor similar to testicular from; produces alpha feto protein
choriocarcinoma like testicular version; increased human chorionic growth factor
teratoma all 3 germ layers. mature teratoma is benign. immature teratoma is an aggressive malignant tumor
struma ovarii contains functional thyroid tissue
serous cystadenoma bilateral, lined with fallopian tube like epithelium; benign
serous cystadenocarcinoma malignant, frequently bilateral
mucinous cystadenoma multilocular cysts lined by mucus-secreting epithelium; benign
mucinous cystadenocarcinoma malignant
brenner tumor benign, resembles bladder epithelium
ovarian fibroma bundles of spindle shapted fibroblasts
meigs syndrome triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax
granulosa cell tumor secretes estrogen causing precocious puberty or endometrial hyperplasia, call- exner bodies
dysplasia and carcinoma in situ disordered epithelial growth begins at basal layer and extends outward, classified by extent of dysplasia (CIN1-3) associated with HPV. may progress to invasive carcinoma
invasive carcinoma often squamous cell carcinoma
benign prostatic hyperplasia may be due to age related increase in estradiol with the possible sensitization of the prostate by DHT; characterized by nodular enlargment of periurethral lobes, compressing urethra to slit
prostatic adenocarcinoma arises most often from posterior lobe and is more frequently diagnosed by digital rectal exam. osteoblastic metastases in bone may develop in late stages
seminoma malignant germ cell tumor, mid 30's age group, painless enlargment of the testes, sometimes associated with incresed serum hCG, is radiosensitive
fibrocystic disease presents with diffuse brest pain and multiple lesions, bilateral, usually does not indicate increase risk for carcinoma
fibrosis hyperplasia of stroma
cystic fluid filled
sclerosing increased acini and intralobular fibrosis
epithelial hyperplasia increase in number of epithelial layers in terminal duct lobule, increased risk of carcinoma with atypical cells, occurs >30 years
fibroadenoma most common tumor, < 25 years; small, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges, increased size and tenderness during pregnancy
cstosarcoma phyllodes large, bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts. tumor may have leaf like projections
malignant breast tumors common post menopausal. arise from mammary duct epithelium or lobular glands. over expression of setrogen/progesterone receptors common
ductal carcinoma in situ early malignancy without basement membrane penetration
invasive ductal, no specific type firm fibrous mass. common. poorer outcome
comedocarcinoma ductal, with cheesy consistancy due to central necrosis
inflammatory tumors lymphatic involvment; poor prognosis
invasive lobular often multiple; bilateral
medullary tumor fleshy, cellular, lymphatic infiltrate; good prognosis
paget's disease of the breast eczematous patches on nipples
paget cells large cells with lcear halo; suggest underlying carcinoma
Created by: swohlers