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"LMS Ch 22.1 DR

"LMS Ch 22.1 Directed Reading

Define atmosphere. Atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth.
Describe two important functions served by Earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere protects Earth’s surface from the sun’s radiation and helps regulate the temperature.
The most abundant elements in air include all of the following oxygen, nitrogen, argon.
The composition of air is approximately the same all over Earth up to an altitude of about 80 km
The two most abundant compounds in air are the gases carbon dioxide and water vapor.
In addition to containing gaseous elements and compounds, the atmosphere carries various kinds of tiny solid particles such as dust and pollen.
How much of Earth’s atmosphere is composed of nitrogen? 78%
The process by which nitrogen moves from air to the soil and then to plants and animals and eventually returns to the air is called the nitrogen cycle.
Nitrogen is removed from the air primarily by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Describe the four steps of the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil change N2 into nitrogen compounds; nitrogen compounds in plants are consumed by animals; nitrogen compounds return to the soil in wastes; decay and processes in the soil return N2 to the atmosphere.
What percentage of Earth’s atmosphere is made up of oxygen? 21%
Identify six ways oxygen is removed from the atmosphere. animals; bacteria; plants; forest fires; the burning of fuels; weathering of some rocks
Explain how oxygen is returned to the atmosphere. Land and ocean plants produce large quantities of oxygen during photosynthesis.
Is the current oxygen content of the atmosphere lower, higher, or about the same as it was millions of years ago? Explain your answer. The oxygen content is about the same because the amount of oxygen produced by plants each year equals the amount consumed by all animal life processes.
As water evaporates from oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, it enters air as _______________________ . water vapor
What is the life process by which plants and animals give off water vapor? transpiration
How is water vapor removed as it enters the atmosphere? Water vapor is removed by the processes of condensation and precipitation.
What are three factors that affect the percentage of water vapor in the air? location; time of day; season
What percentage of water is in dry air? dry air
What percentage of water is in moist air? moist air
What is ozone? How does it differ from oxygen? Ozone is a form of oxygen present in the atmosphere in small amounts. Ozone (O3) is made up of three oxygen atoms, rather than two atoms.
What purpose does the ozone layer serve? The ozone layer absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. without it, living organisms would be severely damaged by the sun.
Describe the effect of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the ozone layer. CFCs break down ozone and have caused parts of the ozone layer to weaken.
What are particulates? Particulates are various tiny solid particles in the atmosphere.
List seven different particulates. volcanic dust; ash from fires; microscopic organisms; mineral particles from soil; pollen; particles from meteors; salt crystals
Describe four common sources of particulates. volcanic ash and dust; pollen; tornadoes and windstorms; sea spray
How do large particles in the atmosphere differ from small particles? Large particles remain in the atmosphere briefly; tiny particles can remain suspended in the atmosphere for months or years.
What holds the gases of the atmosphere near Earth’s surface? gravity
The pressure exerted on a surface by the atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure.
The pressure of the atmosphere is exerted equally in all directions.
How much of the total mass of the atmosphere does gravity keep within 32 km of Earth’s surface? 99%
Because the pull of gravity is not as strong at higher altitudes, the air molecules there are farther apart exert less pressure.
It can be said that atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases.
Besides altitude, what are two other factors that cause atmospheric pressure to change? temperature and the amount of water vapor in the air
In general, what happens to atmospheric pressure at sea level when the temperature increases? As temperature increases, atmospheric pressure decreases.
Why is air that contains a lot of water vapor less dense than drier air? Water vapor molecules have less mass than nitrogen or oxygen molecules. The lighter water vapor molecules replace an equal number of heavier oxygen and nitrogen molecules, making the volume of air less dense.
What three units do meteorologists use to measure atmospheric pressure? atmospheres (atm); millimeters or inches of mercury; millibars (mb)
Instrument that measures atmospheric pressure using a column of liquid mercury mercurial barometer
Instrument that measures atmospheric pressure; changes in atmospheric pressure cause the sides of a sealed metal container to bend inward or bulge out aneroid barometer
Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure barometer
Aneroid barometer that registers altitude above sea level rather than air pressure altimeter
1 atmosphere; the average atmospheric pressure at sea level, equalling 760 mm of mercury or 1,000 millibars standard atmospheric pressure
In Earth’s atmosphere, what causes the distinctive pattern of temperature changes with increasing altitude? The temperature differences mainly result from how solar energy is absorbed as it moves through the atmosphere.
the layer of atmosphere between the troposphere and the mesosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases stratosphere
the uppermost layer of atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases thermosphere
upper boundary of the stratosphere stratopause
the upper boundary of the troposphere tropopause
upper boundary of the mesosphere mesopause
the coldest layer of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and the thermosphere, in which temperature decreases as altitude increases mesophere
the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases troposphere
the region above the ionosphere, where Earth’s atmosphere blends into the almost complete vacuum of space exosphere
phenomena caused by interactions between solar radiation and the ionosphere auroras
the lower region of the thermosphere ionosphere
Explain why the temperature in the troposphere decreases as altitude increases. Air in the troposphere is heated from below by thermal energy that radiates from Earth’s surface.
Why does temperature begin to increase in the upper stratosphere? Air in the upper stratosphere is heated from above by absorption of solar radiation by ozone.
Explain why the temperature in the thermosphere steadily rises. In the thermosphere, nitrogen and oxygen atoms absorb solar radiation.
What is an air pollutant? Air pollution is any substance in the atmosphere that is harmful to people, animals, plants, or property.
How do fossil fuels cause air pollution? As fossil fuels burn, they may release substances such as sulfur dioxide gas, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, and lead into the air.
What is a temperature inversion? A temperature inversion is the layering of warm air on top of cool air.
What is smog? Smog is a general term for air pollution that indicates a combination of smoke and fog.
Created by: tbfreema