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acceleration the change in velocity over time. in physics, involves any change in velocity- changing direction, speeding up, or slowing down.
articulated broken into sections by joints. many robot arms have articulated geometry and the versatility is measured in degrees of freedom
binaural hearing the ability of humans and robots to determine the direction from which sounds is coming33
cartesian coordinate geometry derived from the cartesian system used for graphing mathematical functions. The axes are always perpendicular to each other.
cylindrical coordinate geometry refers to the plane that issued in the combination with a plane coordinate system and elevation in conjuction with a robotic system
degrees of freedom the number of ways that a robot manipulator can move
degrees of rotation the extent that a robot joint or a set of joints can move clockwise or counterclockwise about an axis. a reference point is established and the angles of the joint are stated in degrees.
expert systems a method of reasoning of AI used to control smart robots. The expert system consists of facts of data supplied to the robot about the robot's environment; also called ruled-based system
kinetic energy energy in motion
machine hearing advanced "hearing" by a robot that can pick up a sound, amplify it and determine from which direction the sound is coming
manipulators technical term for robot arms; has a definte # of degrees of freedom & rotation, this refers to # of deminsions of movement; most have 3-demensions
mechanics the study of objects in motion, normally limited to the study of a small number of rather large, slow objects
PET "positron emission tomography" medical imaging technique that reveals dynamic activites of the body
potential energy energy that an object has stored due to its position relative to some zero position
resolution the extent to which a machine, microscope, human or robot can differentiate between two objects
revolute geometry refers to a robotic arm that can move in 3 dimensions resembling the movements of a human arm
sensitivity ability of a machine or robot to see in dim light or detect weak impulses at invisible wavelengths
speed describes how fast something is moving without consideration of the object's direction
telechir name given to remotely controlled robots
telepresence refers to the operation of a robot at a distance, meaning the operator is situated in 1 location, usually miles apart, and the robot is on-site with the pt
ultrasound non invasive diagonstic tool that transforms sound waves into images
work in physics, is defined as force acting on an object ot cause a displacement
x-ray item developed to see inside w/o changing the physical structure
proper definition of a robot a machine that features mobility, operates automatically & performs a large variety of tasks
1st generation robot robot that performs precise repeative motions at high speed for industrial applications & requires constant oversight
as a ST it is important to have an understanding of physics, the understanding of physics will allow the ST to operate equipment in the or, will allow a better understanding of the human body
CAT Scan was invented to allow a noninvasive diagontist method giving greater access to details of the body's inner tissue than an xray
future robots will be utilized in health care, the benefits include control the cost, recovery time is shorter, enable surgeons to perform surgeries at a distance
telesurgery term for performing a surgical procedure in real time from a distance
when performing ultrasound imaging, the image that is created is a result of acoustic reflectivity of the tissue at various locations in space
function of an endoscope allow for operative site viewing
advantages of remote manipulation better visualization of operative site thru 3-D imaging, allows the surgeon to effectively perform complex intervention, eliminates hand tremors
VACS (voice activated control system) a master control unit that is activated by the surgeons hand or voice by way of a headset or microphone
PET preperation, a pt ingests a radiopharmecutial agent, that emits a postitevly charged electron called a positron
pacemaker/defibrilator used to overcome electrical condition problems of the heart
average speed distance traveled divided by time taken to travel that distance
work occurs when a force moves an object
matter objects that have mass & take up space; forms do not include light, sound or heat
components of a surgical robot manipulator remote console w/micromanipulators, computer & VACS
position of robot arm in OR attached on the rail of the OR table
when performing a minimally invasive surgical technique, the robot significantly reduces time spent under anethesia, recovery time for pt
kenetics study of a object in motion w/o much concern for the forces that produce the motion
an arm with Cartesian geometry moves along the x-,y- & -z axis,directions are up/down, right/left, front/back
micromanipulator what translate the surgeons hand movement to the robotic arm & instrumentation
example of harmonic motion plucking a guitar string
mechanical most common form of energy
power rate at which work is done
pitch up & down movement of the manipulator
elbow joint moves in 3-D w/ 360 degree rotation
what 2 parts of an atom are responsible for most of the atomic mass protons & neutrons
H2O formula for water; 2 parts hydrogen + 1 part oxygen
isotops the varying # of neutrons w/in an element will form this
thermal equilbrium when objects touch, they have differing temperatures & the object w/higher temp causes object w/lower to warm until they no longer differ in temperature
sound waves when alternating patterns of compression & confractions converge
sound can bend around corners
tranducers enables a robot to distinguish a sound and its origin
how are the manipulators of a robot that hold the endoscope & instruments sterlizied covered with a sterile sleeve
primary robotic systems used in or da vinci & aesop
pt imaging 1st segment of planning & rehearsing a surgical intervention
role of ST in future of robotics will be able to maintain, troubleshoot & operate the complex machinery related to robotics.
why will a ST need to have the basic training if the future will be owned by robotics in the or the pt will still need to be opened due to complications during surgery, the st will need training in basics of robotics as they may be assisting the surgeon, who is in another location
human arm has 7 degrees of freedom
manipulator arm 3 movements pitch,yew & roll
resolution ability to differenciate between 2 objects
2nd generation robot robot incorporates a level of AI
4th generation robot is not yet fully developed, but will be distinguished from the other generations by their ablility to learn
3rd generation robot autonomic & insect robots
1st generation robot are simple & mechanical arm w/o AI
false Sterlizition of endoscope are not cleaned the same as other instruments
true surgical robots can distinguishes from which sound originates and determine the type of sound, such as a human voice
4 advantages of remote manipulation elimanates hand tremors; allows the surgeron to effectively perform complex intervention w/in a confined space; better visualzation of operative site; fosters telesurgery
3 Newton laws of motion object at rest will remain at rest; objects accerlation is the same direction as the force excerted on it; for every action, there is a equal and opposite reaction
x-ray discovered by Wilheim Conrad Rontgen
simple harmonic most common type of motion found in nature
gases elements that are not part of most living creatures
the ____ of an atomic structure is determined by using the formula Neutrons + Protons mass number
what does a deformable model provide a realistic mechanical simulation of bones and tissue
Created by: clmcnees