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Micro - PCC

Second exam Micro

Spore forming bacterium that is found ubiquitously in the soil Bacillus
Involved in biological warfare, is a zoonotic disease and is a spore former Bacillus anthracis
What are the 3 diffrent types of anthrax? 1. Cutaneous 2. Gastrointestinal 3. Inhalation (lungs)
Cutnaneous anthrax is characterized with what type of lesion? Eschar (black, necrotic)
Inhalation anthrax aka what? Wool-sorter's disease
Most common type of anthrax? Cutaneous
classically noted for being produced in rice Bacillus cereus
What are the two classifications of bacillus cereus? 1. Heat stable 2. Heat-sensitive (labile)
T or F Bacillus cereus does not form spores False!
The heat-stable variety of bacillus spores flurish in what location? Heat sensitive? 1. In the rice (especially if the food is quickly cooled) 2. In the gut after ingestion of the spores
Listeria monocytogenes grows in _____ across a wide range of pH. Refridgerated foods
What type of temperature does listeria like? Canada weather....cold!
Where is listeria found? SoilWaterUncooked meatsUnpaturized cheese or milkUnwashed veggies
Unborn babies, Newborn babies, Pregnant woman, Elderly, Organ transplant people, Cancer patients : what types of foods these people should avoid like the plague? Any type of food that could contain listeria: Uncooked meatsUnpaturized cheese or milkUnwashed veggies
1.What is the neonatal diseases associated with listeria? 2.Potential complication? 1. Listeriosis 2. Meningitis
This is the forth most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults? (This means that not only neonates can get this but adults also) Listeria
How do you prevent the propagation of listeria? 1. Pasturize the milk2. Avoid high risk foods3. Wash your veggies!
T or F: Garderella vaginalis is part of the woman's normal flora sure
What kind of cells are associated with garderella vaginalis? Clue cells
Garderella vaginalis results from ____ NOT an infection Imbalance in the natural flora
Hallmark symptom of garderella vaginalis? Foul, fishy smell
1. Vaginal pH more that 7 = ? 2. Vaginal pH less than 7 = ? 1. Garderella vaginalis 2. Yeast infection
Is garderella vaginalis an STD Fuck no... she just said it so i made a card for it.
Babes-Ernst bodies are Pavlov for what? Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria)
Why is diphtheria potentially so dangerous? Interferes with RNA synthesis and protein production... you die!
What vaccine are children given to protect them against diphtheria? DTaP vaccine
What is the test associated with diphtheria? Shick test
What is contained in the DTaP vaccine? Toxoids
What are the two types of actinomycetes? 1. Nocardia 2. Actinomyces
4 types of nocardia 1. Acute and chronis suppurative 2. Bronchiopulmonary3. Cutaneous4. Actinomycotic mycetoma
Actinomycotic mycetoma aka what? Madura foot
2 types of thermophilic actinomycetes 1. Farmer's lung2. Whipples disease
Hypersensitivity reaction due to repeated exposure to organisms...patients may develop granulomatous tissues in the lungs with repeated exposure Farmer's lung
T or F: Farmer's lung is a very resistant infection False! It is not an infection, it is an alergic reaction
Considered to be primarily a malabsorption disease Whipple's disease
Whipples disease is associated with what? Actinomycetes
AIDS = increase in what disease? TB
TB, Leprosy (hansen's disease) and MAI fall under what broader catagory? Mycobacterium spp.
TB aka what? Consumption
TB infection of the vertebral column, usually in children Pott's disease
What is the composition of TB? High lipid content
Is TB a lifelong infection? ya think?!
_____ are the only known natural resevoirs for TB Humans
How do you spread TB? Through the air...inhalation of infectious aresol or through dried sputum
TB is common in what type of living conditions? Overcrowded, poorly sanitized
Why is one of the major reason's we pasturize milk? TB can be transmitted from cow to human
Primary lesion of TB Ghon focus
Initial infection of TB is where? Lungs
In TB, ____ ____ gather at the site of infection to wall off the bacteria and prevent further spread of infection Activated macrophages
In TB, these can be penetrated by activated macrophages, which are able to kill all the bacteria within Small granulomas
In TB, these become necrotic and develop a fibrous capsule which protects the bacteria from being killed by the macrophage Large granulomas
What happens if the granuloma can no longer contain the infection? Active TB will develop
The primary lesion of pulmonary TB is called what? Ghon's focus
This occurs when TB spreads from the lungs to the bloodstream and then infects the spine Pott's disease
Leprosy AKA what? Hansen's disease
What species can contract leprosy? Humans and Armadillos
This causes chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves Leprosy
T or F: Immune compromise is required for leprosy to occur True
3 forms of leprosy 1. Lepromatous leprosy 2.Tuberculoid leprosy3.Intermediate "pretty" leprosy
Progressive, disfiguring, malignant form of leprosy Lepromatous leprosy
Localized form of leprosy...infection is limited to one area of skin Tuberculoid leprosy
Leprosy that pulls skin tight (leaving no wrinkles) Intermediate or "pretty" leprosy
Where do you find the most abundant source of mycobacterium leprae in the infected host? Nasal mucosa
T or F: Leprosy has no cure False!
1. Clostridium exists are part of our normal flora in our _____. 2. What triggers sporulation? 1. GI tract 2. oxygen
Clostridium: 1. Ability to survive harsh conditions by the production of ___.2. Rapid growth within host tissues under ___ conditions.3. Production of ___. 1. Spores2. Anaerobic3. Toxins
Clostridium perfringens can cause what? Food poisoning
What types of toxins are produced by clostridium perfringens? (4) 1. Alpha toxins2. Beta toxins3. Epsilon and iota toxins4. Enterotoxins
This toxin produces necrosis, especially in the GI tract. Beta toxin
These toxins increase vascular permiability of the GI wall Epsilon and iota toxins
1. This toxin is produced in the gut during sporulation. 2. Is it heat labile or stable? 1. Enterotoxins2. Labile
Gas gangerine aka what? Myonecrosis
C. perfringens serotype A, typically from the ____, is associated with what? (3) 1. Soil2. Gas gangerene, Cellulitis or faciitis and food poisoning
Meat that had been slowly or inadequatly cooked will likely cause what type of food poisoning? Clostridial food poisoning
C. perfringens serotype A: toxin or infection? Infection
C. perfringens serotype C: toxin or infection? Toxin
Clostridial food poisoning: toxin or infection? Infection
Gas gangerene: toxin or infection? Infection
1. C. perfringens, serotype C causes what?2. Toxin or infection? 1. Enteritis necroticans2. Toxin!
Enteritis necroticans is to to the ___ which is typically produced by C. Perfringens serotype C. Beta-toxin
Most toxic toxin ever in the history of the universe is what? Botulism... 1 gram can kill everyone in the US
This guy is found in normal flora but when we take take antibiotics and wipe out normal flora, it can be problematic. Clostridium difficile
C. difficile is found in the ___ of humans. GI tract
1. Clinical condition associated with C. difficile.2. AKA what? 1. Antibiotic associated colitis 2. Pseudomembranous colitis
Treatment drug for C. difficile Vancomycin
Clostridium botulinum: toxin or infection? Heat stable or labile? 1. Toxin (most dangerous toxin EVAR!) 2. Labile
T or F: C. Botulinum is an aerobic spore former False -- Anaerobic
Types of toxins produced by clostridum botulinum (3) A, B and E
A, B and E toxins target what part of the human anatomy> Cholenergic nerves
1. When A, B and E toxins attack cholenergic nerves, what is the result? 2. Why? 1. Flaccid paralysis2. Neurotransmission is blocked
For food born botulism, specific conditions must exist for the toxin to be produced...name 3 1. Neutral pH2. Anaerobic conditions3. Must have viable spores
Since food born botulism is heat labile, what must we do to get rid of it? Thoroughly cook the food... go figure
1. Can you recover from food born botulism? 2. what must happen? 1. Yes2. Regeneration of the damaged nerve endings... may take years
Symptoms include "floppy baby", poor muscle tone and failure to thrive. Infant botulism
1. Never feed a baby what? 2. Why? 1. Honey 2. Lots of C. botulinum spores
1. Clostridium tetani: toxin or infection? 2. What type of paralysis? 1. toxin2. Spastic
Clostridium tetani cause what gang? Tetanus...very good!
Second most potent biological toxin known Tetanus
Why do you get spastic paralysis with tetanus? The toxin blocks the release of neurotransmitters at the inhibitory synapse which results in continued excitatory synaptic activity
Which is faster acting: Clostridium tetani or Clostridium botulinum? Botulinum... Tetani can take days to months to show symptoms
Trismus, lockjaw, sardonic smile or risus sardonicus are all pavlov for what? Tetanus (clostridium tetani)
3 types of tetanus 1. Localized tetanus2. Cephalic tetanus3. neonatal tetanus
What does vaccination with the tetanus toxoid do? Antibodies neutralize toxin to prevent interaction with synaptic tissue
What vaccination is given for tetanus? DPT... the T part of that vaccine
Acne can cause what? Actinomyces
Acne is derived from what microorganism? Propionibacterium acnes
All gram negative bacteria have what? ENDOTOXINS!
Neisseria is gram negative or positive? Negative (hence it has an endotoxin)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae aka what? Gonococcus
Females present symptoms in which manner for gonorrhoeae? Often assymptomatic
Gonorrhoeae left untreated in female can cause what? Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
What type of parasite is gonorrhoeae? Obligate parasite
What is the battle strategy of gonorrhoeae that allows it to invade our bodies? Cleaves IgA in muccous (therefor protecting it from cell mediated clearance)
People who have a deficiency in there ___ ___ ___ are more at riskto become infected once exposed to gonorrhoeae and are at a greater risk systemic disease once infected. Compliment mediated immunity
2nd most reported STD in the US? 1st? 1. gonorrhoeae 2. Chlamydia
If exposed to gonorrhoeae, who has a higher risk of contracting it: men or woman? Woman
Signs and symptoms: gonorrhoeae: men:1. primarily located in the ____2. Painful ____3. Large amount of ___ discharge 1. Urethra2. Urination3. Purulent
Gonorrhoeae: woman:1. Primarily targets the ____2. Symptoms include what? (3) 1. cervix2. Vaginal discharge, dysuria and abdominal pain
What race shows a higher incidence of gonorrhoeae? African americans
Other complication that can be cause by gonococcus (4) 1. Gonococcemia2. Purulent conjunctivitis3. Pharyngitis4. Anorectal gonorrhoeae
Meisseria meningitidis causes what? The flu
Meisseria meningitidis is a gram negative diplococcus that colonizes the ___ of healthy people Oropharynx
Large amounts of endotoxin stimulate an overwhelming systemic reaction called what? Endotoxic shock
What is a great way to contract Meisseria meningitidis? Through transmission by respiratory droplets (especially among people living in close contact for long periods of time)
Largest group of medically important bacteria Family enterobactericae
Includes strict pathogens such as shigella, salmonella and yersinia Family enterobactericae
Includes man normal flora organisms as well as opportunists, including escherichia, klebsiella and proteus Family enterobactericae
Surface antigens of Family enterobactericae? (3) 1. O antigen2. K antigen3. H antigen
Comprised of LPS terminal polysaccharide O antigen
Capsular polysaccharide K antigen
Flagellar subunits, aka flagellin H antigen
Capsule of Family enterobactericae: 1. inhibits _____ by PMNs and macrophages 2. Covers cell wall antigen which interferes with what? 3. ______ to capsular antigens eventually develop 1. Phagocytosis2. Antibody recognition and binding3. Protective antibodies
3 virulence factors important for Family enterobactericae 1. Capsule2. Flagella3. Fimbriae
2 characteristics of the flagella of Family enterobactericae 1. Motility2. Presence of H antigen
Importance of fimbriae in Family enterobactericae Adhesion
Escherichia is part of the normal flora of the ____ GI tract
Escherichia: _____ allow bacteria to adhere to the ____ and ____ 1. Adhesins2. Urinary tract epithelium3. GI tract epithelium
Escherichia: what types of toxins? (4) 1. Shiga and shiga-like toxins2. Hemolytic toxins3. Heat stable toxins4. Heat labile toxins
Potential clinical condition of Escherichia (4) 1. Septicemia2. Urinary tract infection3. Neonatal meningitis4. Gastroenteritis
Typically occurs following a UTI or perforation that allows the bacteria to seep in the body's cavities. Septecemia due to Escherichia
Most common type of Escherichia E. Coli
A patient presenting with septecimia du to Escherichia may have a great amount of pain where? Lower back
Enterotoxigenic E. coli is responsible for what clinical condition? AKA what? Traveler's diarrhea --- Montezuma's Revenge
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli: 1. Most notable strain 2. Comes from where? 3. Dangerous? 1. 0157:H7 2. Undercooked ground beef 3. Yep! can kill you
Largest outbreak of salmonella in US history was due to what? Jewel Milk
Why do we not sell turtles as pets anymore? Because they carry salmonella
5 clinical conditions of salmonella 1. Enteritis 2. Septicemia 3. Enteric fever 4. Asymptomatic carriage 5. Paratyphoid fever
Most common form of salmonellosis? Infection or toxin? Enteritis --- Infection
Enteric fever aka what? Typhoid fever
Through what route does salmonella travel to infect us? Fecal-oral
When does salmonella become a danger? Once it crosses into the blood stream like in typhoid fever
Shigellosis aka what? Bacillary dysentery
1. Shigella is found in humans but mostly affects who? can run rampid where? 1. Children 2. Daycares
Infection of shigella is mainly through the ______ route Fecal-oral
Hallmark symptoms of shigellosis Lower abdominal crfamps and tenesmus with pus and blood in the stool
How do we prevent the spread of shigella Wash your hands dammit!
In yersinia what is the vector and what is the resevoir? Vector = Flea Resevoir = rat
Yersinia was responsible for what pandemic? Plague, Black death
3 types of plagues and what part of the body is affected 1. Bobonic (Lymph nodes) 2. Pneumonic (Lungs) 3. Septicemic (Blood)
Which of the plagues is the only one that can be spread human to human? Pneumonic
1. Who does klebsiella pneumonia mostly affect? 2. Where is it most likely to run rampant? 1. compromised hosts and alcoholics 2. Hospital (Nosocomial)
What is the second most common cause of UTIs? Proteus
What did she say about serratia marcescens? She said they were cute cause they are pink
Where is serratia marcescens most likely to grow? In soap scum (bathroom)
Vibrio cause what? Cholera, gastrointeritis and wound infections
Hallmark of cholera Rice-water stools
Types of vibrio Vibrio cholera, halophilic vibrio
Most common cause of bacterial diarrheal gastroenteritis in the US Camphylobacter jejuni
Serious complication that can result from camphylobacter jejuni Guillaine-Barre syndrome
Causes ulcers (found where?) Helicobacteria (stomach acid)
Where do you find alot of pseudomonas? Hot tubs!! ewww
If you don't control haemophilus influenza, what can result? Meningitis and middle ear infection
1 Old vaccine that was given to prevent haemophilus influenza? 2. New vaccine contains what? 1. Hib vaccine 2. prp capsular antigen complex with a protein
Haemophilus influenza biotype aegyptius aka what? Koch-Week's bacillus (pink eye)
Haemophilus ducreyi is a what? STD
1. Bordetella pertussis aka what? 2. What vaccine is given? 3. Kills who? 4. Toxin or infection? 1. Whooping cough 2. DPT vaccine 3. Mostly infants in the first couple months of life 4. Toxin
Clinical condition associated whit Francisella? AKA what? 1. Tularemia 2. Rabbit fever or Glandular fever
Clinical condition associated with Brucella? AKA what? (2) 1. Brucellosis 2. Undulant fever or Bang's disease
2 clinical conditions associated with legionella 1. Pontiac fever 2. Legionnaire disease
Legionnaire's disease is a sever form of what? Pneumonia
1. Bartonella is a vector born bacterium that is carried by what? 2. Originally recognized as the cause of what? 1. Body lice.. ewww 2. Trench fever (WW1)
Created by: LrB