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Folds & Faults

Gilkey - Inside Restless Earth - Ch.4

the amount of force per unit area that is put on a given material stress
the type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed compression
the type of stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object tension
when rock layers bend due to stress in the Earth's crust folding
the surface along which rocks break and slide past each other faults
blocks of crust on each side of the fault fault block
the fault block that is above a fault hanging wall
the fault block that is below a fault footwall
a fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall - usually occur when tectonic forces cause tension that pulls rocks apart normal fault
a fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall - usually happens when tectonic forces cause compression that pushes rocks together reverse fault
faults that occur when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally strike-slip fault
mountains that form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward folded mountains
mountains that form when large blocks of the Earth's crust drop down relative to other blocks fault-block mountains
mountains that form when molten rock erupts onto the Earth's surface volcanic mountains
Created by: gilkey