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Vocabulary: All Units

abdominal cavity contains stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix, and some of the large intestines.
anatomical position body standing erect, face foward, arms at side, palms forward.
anatomy study of structure of an organism
anterior front or ventral
caudal tail end of the body
coronal plane plane that cuts body into front and back sections
cranial head
cranial cavity posterior cavity containing the brain
deep (internal) inside the body
distal away from the origin
dorsal pertaining to the back
dorsal cavity posterior of the body which houses the brain and spinal column
epigastric upper region abdominal cavity
hypochondriac region on either side of the epigastric
hypogastric below the stomach region
iliac region located on either side of the hypogastric
inferior below
lateral to the side
lumbar region of the lower back
medial near the midline
mid-sagittal plane imaginary line dividing the body into equal left and right halves
pelvic cavity cavity containing the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, part of the large intestine, and the appendix
planes imaginary anatomical dividing lines of the body
physiology science that studies functions of living organisms and their parts
posterior opposite to anterior -back side
proximal close to the point trunk of the body
sagittal plane longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left
transverse dividing the body into upper and lower halves
umbilical region surrounding the belly button
ventral front or anterior
adipose fatty or fat-like
cartilage nonvascular connective tissue
cicatrix scar tissue
connective tissue cells whose intracelllular secretions support and connect organs and tissues of the body
epithelial tissue covers bodys internal and external surface
mucous membrane layers of tissue that lubricate and protect linings of respitory, digestive, reproductive and urinary system
parietal lining of a body cavity
pericardial membrane around the heart
peritoneal lines the abdominal organs
pleural membrane serous membrane protecting the lungs and lining the internal surface of the thoracic cavity
serous membrane double walled membrane produces serous fluid
visceral relating to an organ
arrector pili muscles attached to hair follicle
melanocytes cells that produce melanin
hair follicle small tube where hair growth occurs
sebum secretion of sebaceous glands
sudoriferous gland sweat gland
keratin protein substance found in hair, nails, outer skin cells
stratum germinativum the innermost of the epithelial cells of the epidermis
medulla the inner portions of the hair
melanin brown skin pigment
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
alopecia hair loss
urticaria or hives an allergic or hypersensitivity response characterized by raised red lesions
dermis layer of skin composed of dense fibrous connected tissue; called the "true skin"
epidermis outermost layer of the skin; "false skin", avascular
shingles viral infection that affects the skin of a single dermatome. AKA Herpes Zoster. very painful.
impetigo a bacterial skin infection that occurs most often in children. Yellow crusts appear.
eczema inflammatory skin condition associated with a variety of diseases and characterized by erythema (redness), papules, vesicles, and crusts
adipose fat tissue
papillae small, nipple-shaped elevations
stratum corneum the tough outer layer of the epidermis
psoriasis chronic, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by cutaneous inflammation and slilvery plaques or scales
melanoma a malignant cancer of the pigment-producing cells of the skin
wart a raised bump that is a benign tumor of the skin caused by viruses
tumor the growth of tissues in which cell proliferation is uncontrolled and progressive
sebaceous gland oil-producing glands
subcutaneous tissue below the layers of skin
Rule of Nines The method used to determine the extent of a burn injury
pustule small, raised skin lesion filled with pus
papule a raised, firm skin lesion less than 1 cm in diameter
excoriation skin lesion in which epidermis has been removed, as in a scratch wound
Acne Vulgaris inflammatory skin condition affecting sebaceous gland ducts
albinism condition characterized by a lack of melanin
joint the points of contact between two bones.Three main types -diarthroses(movable), amphiarthroses(partially movable), and synathroses(immovable).
abduction movement away from midline or axis of body; opposite of adduction.
adduction movement of part of body or limb toward the midline of body; opposite of abduction.
appendicular skeleton part of skeleton consisting of shoulder and pelvic girdles,arms and legs.
axial skeleton skeleton of head and trunk.
ball and socket joint diarthroses joint allows the greatest freedom of movement.
medullary canal located in the center of diaphysis, filled with yellow bone marrow, mostly made of fat cells.
ossification the process when mineral matters starts to replace previously formed cartilage, creating bones.
bursa sacs small sac that cushion joints
circumduction circular movement at a joint.
osteocyte a mature bone cell.
periosteum a tough fibrous tissue which contatins blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves that covers the outside of the bone.
diaphysis shaft of long bone.
endosteum lining of the medullary cavity in the long bone.
epiphysis the end of the long bone.
extension act of increasing the angle between two bones.
flexion the act of bending a limb or decreasing the angle between two bones.
pronation the forearm turns the hand so the palm is downward or backward.
rotation movement allows a bone to move around one central axis.
spongy bone porous bone, found in epiphysis
supination the palm is forward or upward (lying on back)
fontanel unossified areas in the infant skull; soft spot.
arthritis inflammation of the joint.
suture immovable joint in cranial cavity.
bursitis inflammation of a bursa.
dislocation displacement of one or more bones of a joint or organ from original position.
gliding joint nearly flat surfaces glide across each other, as inthe vertebrae of the spine. these joints enable the torso to bend forward, backward, and sideways, as well as rotate
hinge joints move in one direction or plane, as in the knees,elbows, and outer joints of the fingers.
pivot joints joints with an extension rotation in a second, arch-shaped bone. Ex. radius and ulna
synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane, lubricating substance.
gout increase in uric acid crystals in bloodstream which are deposited in joint cavities, especially the grat toe.
kyphosis hunchback, exagerated curvature in thoracic vertebrae.
lordosis swayback,forward curvature of lumbar region of spine.
osteoporosis loss of calcium in bone, causing brittienes, occurs mainly in females after menopause
osteomyelitis inflammmation of the bone
osteosarcoma bone cancer.
whiplash trauma to cervical vertebra.
sprain wrenching of a joint, producing a stretching or tearing of ligaments.
spiral fracture broken bone by twisting, common sport injury.
simple fracture closed fracture. when the bone is broken, but the broken ends do not pierce through the skin forming an external wound.
compound fracture(open) bone fragments pierce skin
greenstick fracture found in children
comminuted fracture bones broken into many pieces
scoliosis side to side or lateral curvature of the sping
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disease of joints 3x more common in women
osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease
rickets affects children - lack of vitamin D, may cause bowlegs and pigeon breast. Prevented by Vitamin D and sunshine
open reduction surgically reducing a fx using plates, wires or screws
closed reduction cast and or splint keep realigned bone in place
antagonist muscle whose action oppose the action of another muscle
muscle fatigue caused by an accumalation of lactic acid in the muscle
muscle tone muscles are always in a state of partial contraction
neuromuscular junction point between the motor nerve axon and the muscle cell membrane
origin the part of the skeletal muscle which is attached to the fixed part of the bone
oxygen debt increased respirations to counter lactic acid build-up in muscles
prime mover muscle which provides movement in a single direction
skeletal muscle muscle attached to a bone(s) and concerned in body movements - Voluntary Muscle
smooth muscle non-striated, involuntary muscle
sphincter circular muscle
synaptic cleft space between axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another
voluntary under control of will - Skeletal Muscle
atrophy wasting away of tissue
contractures tightening or shortening of the muscle
cumulative trauma disorders joint problems from repetitive movements
flat feet talipes
ergonomics the application of biology and engineering to the relationship between worker and their environment
hernia protrusion of a loop of an organ through an abnormal opening
hypertrophy an increase in the size of the muscle cell
intramuscular injection an injection into the muscle usually deltoid or gluteus
muscular dystrophy muscle disease in which the muscle cells deteriorate
myalgia muscle pain
myasthenia gravis disease in which there is abnormal weakness and eventual paralysis of muscles
rotator cuff disease an inflamation of a group of tendons that fuse together and surround the shoulder joint
shin splint injury to a muscle tendon in front of the shins
spasm sudden, painful, involuntary muscle contractions
strain tear in a muscle or stress
tendinitis inflamation of the fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones
tennis elbow inflamation of the tendon which connects the arm muscles to the elbow
tetanus infectious disease, usually fatal, characterized by spasms of voluntary muscles and convulsions caused by toxin from tetanus bacillus
torticollis a contracted state of the neck muscles producing an unnatural position of the head
excitability irritability
extensibility ability to be stretched
contractibility ability to shorten (the ability of muscle tissue to shorten)
elasticity ability of muscle to return to its original length (and to its original shape when relaxed)
insertion muscle is attached to moveable part of a bone
agranulocyte a nongranular white blood cell
albumin plasma protein
anitbody inactivates specific foreign substances
antigen substance stimulated antibodies aganist itself
basophil leukocyte cell that shows an attraction for basic dyes
coagulation process of blood clotting
diapedesis passage of blood cells through vessel walls into tissues
eosinophil white blood cell whose granules stain red with acid dyes
erythrocyte red blood cell
erythropoiesis formation or development of red blood cell
fibrin insoluble protein used for blood clotting
fibrinogen protein that is converted into fibrin by thrombin
granulocyte granular white blood cell
hemoglobin oxygen carrying pigment of the blood
hemolysis the bursting of red blood cell
heparin substance obtained from liver, which slows blood clotting
inflammation pain, red, heat, and swelling occur
leukocyte white blood cell
monocyte large mononuclear leukocyte
neutrophil sometimes called "polys"
abscess pus filled cavity
anemia blood disorder characterized by reduction in red blood cells or hemoglobin
aplastic anemia anemia caused by a supression of the bone marrow
Cooley's anemia anemia caused by defect in hemoglobin
edema excess of fluid in the tissues
embolism obstruction of a blood vessel by a circulated blood clot, fat globule air bubble or piece of tissue
erythroblastosis fetalis hemolidic disease of a newborn
hematoma localized clotted mass of blood formed in an organ tissue or space
hemophilia sex linked hereditary bleeding disorder in males but transmitted through females characterized by a prolonged clotting time in abnormal bleeding
iron-deficiency anemia condition resulting from lack of iron in the body
luekemia a cancerous condition in which there is a great increase in the number of blood cells
luekocytes increase of white blood cell count
luekopenia decrease in the number of white blood cells
pernicious anemia caused by decrease of B12 or the lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach
polycythemia too many red blood cells
pus polup of inflammation
pyrexia fever
RHO gam specific preperation of immune globulin given
septicemia presents of pathogenic organisms in the blood
Sickle Cell Anemia blood disorder that causes the red bloods cells to be sickle shaped which causes them to clot together
thrombocytopenia decrease in the number of platelets
thrombosis formation of the blood clot in a vessel
thrombus blood clot formed in a blood vessel
universal donor type O blood
universal recipient invidual belonging to AB blood group
oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin combined with oxygen
pathogenic disease causing
phagocytosis ingestion of foreign particles or other substances by certain cells
plasma liquid part of blood containing corpusles
prothrombin a globulin that helps blood to coagulate
Rh factor antigen found in red blood cells
thrombin enzyme found in the blood produced from an inactive precursor
thrombocyte platelet necessary for blood clotting
thromboplastin substance secreted by platelets when tissues are injured
aorta body's biggest artery
apex tip of the heart
arterioles small branch of artery
artery vessel that carries blood away from heart
atrium top chambers of the heart
AV node small mass of interwoven conducting tissue
SA node impulse that makes the atrium contract
bicuspid valve between the left atrium and ventricle
brachial pulse found in the arm
Bundle of HIS Conductive tissue found in the septum
capillaries place where 02 and CO2 exchange
carotid the artery that brings blood to the brain
coronary artery artery that supplies the heart oxygen
diastolic the rest peiod between systoles
endocardium inner layer of the heart
femoral pulse found in the groin
inferior vena cava vein that brings blood into heart from lower side of the body
jugular main artery of the neck
lub dubb the sound the heart makes when it contracts
myocardium muscle layer of the heart
pacemaker SA Node
pedal pulse taken under the foot
pericardium outer layer of the heart
popliteal pulse taken behind the knee
pulmonary artery artery that brings blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
pulmonary circulation circulation between the heart and lungs
pulmonary vavle valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
pulse sites places where the pulses are found
purkinje fibers fibers that cause the ventricles to contract
radial pulse in the wrist
acquired immunity immunity as a result of exposure to a disease
adenoids pair of glands composed of lymphoid tissue found in nasopharynx
active immunity two types- natural and artificial acquired immunity
allergen substance that causes an allergic reaction
anaphylaxis severe and sometimes fatal allergic reaction
immunization process of increaseing resistance to disease
interstitial fluid tissue fluid
tonsils mass of lymph tissue in back of the throat; produces lymphocytes
lymph watery fluid in the lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes tiny oval shaped structures in a stationary collection found all over the body
lymph vessels tubes that transport lymph from tissues to the circulatory ssystem
passive immunity borrowed immunity, has a temporary effect ie. gamma globulin
spleen lymph organ situated below and behind the stomach
standard precautions guidelines to be used during patient care and cleaning
T-lymphocytes a type of white blood cell found in the thymus gland
Thoracic duct left lymphatic duct; the largest lymph vessel in the body
Thymus endocrine gland located under the sternum, produced t-lymphocytes
adenitis inflammation of a gland
ARC AIDS related complex
ELISA test enzyme linked immunosorbent; AIDS antibody indicator
Hodgkin's disease specific type of cancer of the lymph nodes
Hypersensitivity abnormal response to drug or allergens
Lymphadentitis inflammation of the lymph glands
Lymphoma cancer-causing tumors in the brain
Mononucleosis kissing disease
opportunistic infection an infection which may occur because a person's immune system malfunctions
alveoli air cells found in the lung
anterior nares external portion of the nostril
bronchi two tubes separated from trachea;rigt is shorter and wider
bronchioles one of the smal subdivisions of a bronchus
cilia entraps and prevent the entery of the larger dirt particles
diffusion molecules move from the higher concentration to the lower concentration
epiglottis flap of cartilage lying behind te tongue and in front of the enterance to the larynx
external respiration breathing; exchange of the xygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and the body and the outside enviroment
internal respiration includes the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the cells and the lymph surrounding them
larynx voice box
apnea temporary stoppage of breathing movements
COPD Chronic lung condition such as emphysema or bronchitis
dyspnea labored breathing or difficult breathing
eupnea normal or easy breathing with usual quiet inhalations and exhalations
medulla oblongata part of the brainstem, contains the nuclei for vital functions
nasal septum partition between the two nasal cavities
pharynx throat
pleura pleural membrane; serous membran protecting the lungs and lining the internal surface of thoracic cavity
pleural fluid normal watery body fluid wuthin the pleural space
sinuses recessed cavity or hollow space
surfactant surface-active agent
trachea a thin walled tube between the larynx and the bronchi; conducts air to the lungs
orthopnea difficult or labored breathing, must sit up straight to breathe
tachypnea abnormally rapid rate of breathing
tidal volume the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath
total lung capacity includes tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and residual air
URI Upper Respiratory Infection
epistaxis nosebleed
absorption passage of a substance into body fluids and tissues
alimentary canal the entire digestive tube from mouth to anus
amylase an enzyme that converts starch or glycogen to glucose
anus the outlet from rectum
bile substance produced by the liver,emulsifies fat, stored in gall bladder
bolus round mass of food prepared by mouth
cardiac sphincter circular muscle fibers around opening of esophogus into stomach
cecum pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine
chyme food which has undergone gastric digestion semi- liquid food
colon known as the large intestine. 5 ft in length. divided into ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon.
defecation elimination of waste material from the rectum
digestion complex process of the breaking down of food to be utilized by the body
duodenum first part of the small intestine beginning at pylorus.
emulsified in digestion, when bile breaks up fat.
Enzyme Organic catalyst that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction
esophagus a muscular tube; takes food from pharynx to the stomach
feces waste material from the digestive system
flatulence the presence of excessive gas in the digestive tract
gallbladder a small pear-shaped organ under the right lobe of the liver; it stores bile
gingiva gums
glycogen polysaccharide formed and stored largely in the liver
jejunum section of small intestine between duodenum and ileum
liver large organ of the digestive system, located in upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity
mastication process of chewing
pancreas organ of digestion lies behind the stomach, produces digestive juices, insulin, and glucagon
Parotid Salivary Gland Largest of the salivary glands. Where you get mumps.
peristalsis progressive wave of contraction in tubular structures provided with longitudinal and transverse muscular fibers, as in esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines
ptyalin found in saliva; it converts starches into simple sugars
Pyloric Sphincter Valve that regulates entrance of food from the stomach to the duodenum
rectum portion of the colon that opens into the anus
rugae wrinkles or folds
stomach a major organ of digestion; a pouch-like structure located in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity, between the esophagus and the duodenum
uvula projection hanging from soft palate, in back of throat
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
caries decay of tooth or bone
cholecystectomy removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitits inflammation of the gallbladder
cirrhosis chronic, progressive inflammatory disease of the liver characterized by the formation of fibrous connective tissue, usually involves alcohol usage
colostomy artificial opening from the colon onto the surface of the skin
constipation difficulty or lack of defecation
diarrhea excessive elimination of watery feces
diverticulosis numerous diverticula in the colon
diverticulitis inflammation of the wall of the colon
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of stomach and small intestines
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
heartburn a burning sensation in the esophagus and stomach
hemoccult hidden blood
jaundice yellow Color
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
peritonitis inflammation of the membrane lining the abdominal cavity
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric sphincter, affects infants
ulcer, gastric open sore in stomoach lining, caused by H. pylori
aldosterone hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, regulates salt and water balance in the kidney
bowman's capsule double-walled capsule around the glomerulus of nephron
calyces cup-shaped parts of the renal pelvis
collecting tubules structure in nephron which collects urine from distal convoluted tubule
cortex outer part of the kidney
Distal Convoluted Tubule Tubular process that ascends to the cortex from the loop of Henle
excretion removing nitrogenous wastes, certain salts and excess water from blood
filtrate plasmalike fluid filtered from the blood in the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule
filtration movement of water and particles across a semipermeable membrane by a mechanical force such as blood pressure
glomerulus part of the nephron, tuft of capillaries situated within Bowman's capsule
hilum indentation along the medial border of the kidney, contains blood vessels
kidneys organs of the urinary system that functions to rid the body of the nitrogenous wastes
Loop of Henle Proximal convulted tubule descends into the medulla forming the loop of Henle
medulla inner portion of the kidney
nephron unit of structure of kidney, contains glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal distal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule Twisted tubular branch off the Bowman's capsule
renal calculi clumping together of calcium phosphate crystals, uric acid, and other substances in the kidneys
renin enzyme produced by Kidney
retroperitoneal located behind peritoneum
secretion transports substances from blood into collecting tubules. electrolytes
urinanalysis the chemical analysis of urine
ureters the long narrow tubes that convey urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urethra the tube that takes urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary bladder a muscular membrane-lined sac situated in the anterior part of the pelvic cavity and used to hold urine
urinary meatus the opening to the urethra
ADH Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, which prevents or suppresses urine excretion
Acute Kidney Failure Sudden loss of kidney function
anuria absence of urine
Chronic Renal Failure Gradual loss of function of the nephrons
cystitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder
dialysis selective diffusion through a semipermeable membrane- used to treat kidney failure
diuretic drug to reduce the amount of fluid in the body
dysuria painful urination
glycosuria sugar in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
hemodialysis a procedure for removing waste products in the circulating blood of patients with kidney failure
hydronephrosis renal pelvis and calyces become distended due to the accumulation of fluid
incontinence loss of self-control, especially of urine, feces
lithotripsy a procedure used to reduce kidney stones to sand to enable them to pass through the urinary tract
nocturia excessive urination during the night
oliguria diminished production of urine
peritoneal dialysis filtering of the client's blood through the client's own peritoneal lining
polyuria excessive urination
pyelonephritis inflammation of the kidneys and the pelvis of the ureter
renal calculi kidney stones -Clumping together of calcium phosphate crystals, uric acid, and other substances in the kidneys
uremia the presence of urea and excess waste products in the blood
urethritis inflammation of the urethra
urinalysis the chemical analysis of urine
endocrine gland "ductless" gland; many made of glandular epithelium whose cells maufacture and secrete hormones
hormones substance secreted by an endocrine gland into the bloodstream that acts on a specific target tissue to produce a given response
target cell cell that when acted on by a particular hormone responds becuase it has receptors to which hormones can bind
Location of Hypothalamus cranial cavity
Location of Pituitary cranial cavity
Location of pineal cranial cavity
Location of thyroid neck
Location of parathyroid neck
Location of Thymus mediastinum
Location adrenal glands abdominal cavity (retroperitoneal)
Location of pancreatic islets abdominal cavity (pancreas)
Location of ovaries pelvic cavity
secretes melatonin pineal gland
excess of GH in adults acromegaly
lack of this element may contribute to goiter iodine
SAD Seasonal affective disorder "winter blues"
Secretes Growth Hormone Anerior Pituitary
gland with a duct (lacrimal, sudoriferous) exocrine
secretes ADH and Oxytocin posterior pituitary
graves disease hyperthyroidism
bulging of the eyeballs associated with hyperthyroidism exopthalmus
goiter enlargement of thyroid gland
gland is part of endocrine and digestive system pancreas
gland is both an endocrine gland and a lymphatic organ thymus
regulates metabolism thyroid gland (T3 and T4 hormones)
secretes calcitonin thyroid
secretes TSH and ACTH anterior pituitary
Face becomes swollen, lethargy, memory problems myxedema
cretinism hypothyroidism in children
myxedema hypothyroidism in adults
polyuria,polydypsia, polyphagia symptoms of diabetes
type 1 diabetes insulin dependant, childhood
type 2 diabetes adult onset, usually
nervous, trembling, sweating symptoms of hypoglycemia
drowsy, fruity breath symptoms of hyperglycemia
gigantism hypersecretion of GH in preadolescrnt
dwarfism hypofunction of pituitary gland in childhood
Created by: rierei1971