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coming out the process of defining oneself as gay or lesbian
homophobia the fear and hatred of homosexuality
sexual identity the definition of oneself that is formed around one's sexual relationships
sexual orientation the attraction that people feel for people of the same or different sex
sexual revolution the widespread changes in men's and women's roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as normal part of social developement
social construction perspective a theoretical perspective that explains sex id or any other id as created and learned within a cultural, social, and historical context
achievement test test intended to measure what is actually learned rather than potential
church a formal organization that sees itself and is senn by society as a primary and legitimate religious institution
cult the religious group devoted to a specific cause or charismatic leader
endogamy the practice of seecting mates from within one's group
exogamy the process of selecting mates outside one's groups
extended families the whole networks of parents, children, and other relatives who form a family unit and often reside together
kinship system the patterns of relationships that define people's family relationships to one another
monogamy the marriage practice of a secually exclusive marriage with one spouse at a time
monotheism the worship of a single god
patriarchal religion religion in which the beliefs and practices of the religion are based on male power and authority
polytheism the worship of more than one diety
profane that which is of the everyday, secular world and is specifically not religious
religion an institutionalized system of symbols, beliefs, values and practices by which a group of people interprets and responds to what they feel is sacred and that provides answers to questions of ultimate meaning
religious extremism actions and beliefs that are driven by high levels of religious intolerance
sect groups which have broken off from an established church
secular the ordinary beliefs of dailyl life that are specificaly not religious
anorexia nervosa a condition characterized by compulsive dieting resulting in self-starvation
cognitive ability the capacity for abstract thinking
cognitive elite the idea that there is a presumably genetically based elite class in the United States containing those with high IQs, high incomes, and prestigious jobs
defensive medicine practiced by physicians who order extra tests on a patient in an effort to fend off a lawsuit by the patient
epidemiology the study of all factors-biological, social, economic, and cultural-that are associated with disease and health
health maintenance organization (HMO) a cooperative of doctors asnd other medical personnel who provide medical services inexchange for a set membership fee
managed care use of collective bargaining as part of a large collection of HMOs
medicaid a governmental assistance program that provides health care assistance for the poor, including the elderly
medicare a governmental assistance program established in the 1960s to provide health services for older americans
standardized ability test (SAT) tests given to large populations and scored with respect to population averages
stigma an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited
tracking grouping, or stratifying, students in school on the basis of ability test scores
alienation the feeling of powerlessness and separation from one's group or society
authority power that is perceived by others as legitimate
bureacracy a type of formal organization characturized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of labor, explict rules and impersonality
capitalism an economic system based on the principles of market, competition, private property, and the pursuit of profit
communism an economic system where the state is the sole owner of the systems or production
deindustrialization the transition from a predominatly goods production economy to one based on the provision of services
glass ceiling popular concept referring to the limits that women and minorites experience in job mobility
interest group a constituency in society organized to promote its own agenda
multinational corporations corporations that conduct business across national borders
political action committees (PAC) groups of people who organize to support candidates they feel will represent their views
postindustrial society a society economically dependent upon the production adn distribution of services, information and knowledge
power a person or groups ability to exercise influence and control over others
propaganda information diseeminated by a group or organization such as the state intended to justify its own power
socialism an economic institution characterized by state ownership and management of the basic industries
state the organized system of power and authority in society
xenophobia the fear and hatred of foreigners
census a count of the entire population of a country
demography the scientific study of population
emigration migration of people from one society to another (also called out-migration)
global warming the systematic increase in world-wide surface temperatures
greenhouse effect a rise in the earth's surface temperature caused by heat trapped by excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; global warming
human ecology the study of the interdependence between humans and their physical enviroment
life expectancy the average number of years individuals and the particular groups can expect to live
malthusian theory after T.R. Malthus, the principle that a population, tends to grow faster than the subsistence (food) level needed to sustain it.
population density the number of people per square mile
urbanization the process by which a community acquires the characteristics of city life
collectitive behavior behavior that occurs when the usual conventions are suspended and people collectively establish new norms of behavior in response to an emerging situation
cultural diffusion the transmission of cultural elements from one society or cultural group to another
gemeinshaft german word for community, a state characterized by a sense of common feeling among the members of a society, including strong personal ties, sturdy primary group memberships, and a sense of personal loyalty to one another, associated with rural life
gesellshaft a type of society in which incrasing importance is placed on the secondary relationships people have-that is, less intimate and more instrumental relationships
inner-directedness a condition wherein the individuals behavior is guided by internal principles and morals
moderization a process of social and cultural change that is initiated by industrialization and followed by increase of social differentiation and division of labor.
other-directedness a condition wherein the individual's behavior is guided by the behavior of others
radical movements social movements that seek fundamental change in the structureof society
reactionary movements social movements organized to resist change or to reinstate an earlier social order that participants perceive to be better
reform movements social movements that seek change through legal or other mainstream political means, by working within exisiting institutions
revolution the overthrow of a state or the total transformation of central state institutions
social/political change movements a type of social movement that intends to change some status quo aspect of society, such as the civil rights movement or the enviromental movement
Created by: ilovemiraclewhip