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THA4 Ethics

Ethics notes from WGU mindsedge

Ethics The study of the moral values and conduct of an individual, group, or culture.
Morality The right or wrong of an action, decision, or way of living
Socratic philosophy The belief that knowledge is virtue and morality is the matter of true knowledge.
The Forms The essences of various objects or things (in Platonic thought)
The Golden Mean The desirable middle ethical course between two extremes
Philosopher Kings The hypothetical rulers of Plato's ideal city-state
Stoicism A school of philosophy that advocates control of ones passions and acceptance of one's destiny
Epicureanism A school of philosophy that sees achieving pleasure and peace of mind as the greatest good
Skepticism A school of philosophy that questions the certainty of human and calls for continued inquiry after truth
Virtue Ethics An ethical approach that stresses moral character in contrast to moral actions
Hammurabi's Codes One of the earliest legal codes, established by the king of Babylonia, offering guidelines for conduct and listing crimes and their various punishments
Book of the Dead An Egyptian text that described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife
This text includes an ethical and theological framework for life, including the Ten Commandments. The Torah
The Sophists argued for a philosophy based on self-interest
Aristotle's ethics were founded on the Golden Mean
Aristotle's list of virtues: includes Plato's four main virtues of Courage, Justice, Temperance and Wisdom
Self-control and fortitude are a way of mastering destructive emotions, according to the ___________. Stoics
Natural law theory maintains that: The world is inherently rational and there is a natural order to things.
One problem with Divine Command Theory is that: because it is arbitrary, it could allow for abhorrent commands
Monotheistic religions believe in one God
The Catholic church relies on _____________ for standards of behavior: canon law
Eastern religions differ from Western religions because: there often is no overseeing organized hierarchy
Some religious people regard abortion as immoral largely because: they believe it violates God's commandment against killing
The Confucian guide to proper human behavior is called: the Five Great Relationships
The most sacred holy text for Islam is The Qur'an
The belief of many Eastern religions that our soul lives multiple lifetimes, being reborn after death, is called: reincarnation
Buddhism and Jainism share the belief that: there is no God
One of the world's oldest religions is Hinduism
Some religious groups see economic inequality as immoral because: it runs counter to the Golden Rule and the divine notion of universal brotherhood and justice
Divine Command Theory: is the idea that morality is whatever God (or the gods) command.
Three parts of the Theory of Natural Law Everything in nature exists for a reason, How things are and how they ought to be, Acceptance of reason as God-Given and part of the Natural Law
The Divine Command Theory A system where God's will becomes the foundation of morality
Natural Law A system based on universal laws and principles found in the natural order from which the norms of all human behavior must be derived.
Five Great Relationships A Confusian guide to proper human behavior
Mahayana Sutras Buddhist sacred writings
Reincarnation The belief of many Eastern religions that our soul lives mulitple lifetimes, being reborn after death
Qur'an Islamic sacred writing
Five Pillars Islamic guide to proper human behavior
Halakhah Rabbinic religious law
Sharia Islamic religious law
Monotheism Religions that believe in one God
The Ten Commandments Divine moral imperatives given to the prophet Moses
Under Social Contract Theory, rulers serve: by the consent of the governed
Social Contract Theory is based on: the idea of reciprocity (Thomas Hobbs)
Empiricism is a philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses.(John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume)
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the ethical theory constructed around the reasoning that the greatest good for the greatest number is the only criterion for creating morality. (Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill)
Bentham's Hedonic Calculus tried to establish utilitarian standards
That metaphysical speculation held no validity was a position held by: Auguste Comte, founder of the theory of positivism
Social Contract Theory A philosophical approach that establishes government a society's moral code by consent
Created by: hottnikz