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Statistics Ch 1

orientational stuff for statistics - - high school level

Individuals the people or objects that are in the study
variable characteristics taht are to be measured ex. age, race
quanitative numerical measurements ex. # of siblings....makes sense to add or avg.
qualitative places an individ. into a category or group ex. brand of computer
statistics is the study of how to: collect,, organize, analyze, interpret - numerical info from data
population data the variable is from every individ. of interest
sample data the variable is from only some of the individ. of interest ex. income of selected residents
Nominal measurement date that consists of name only ex. Dell, Apple, blue, funny
ordinal measurement date that can be ordered. Differences cannot be calculated or interpreted. ex. class rank
interval measurement date can be ordered. difference between data values can be compared ex. temperature, years, no meaningful zero
ratio measurement data can be ordered. differences and ratios between data values can be compared. ex. age......needs measureable zero
descriptive statistics involves methods of organizing, picturing, and summarizing information from samples or population
inferential statistics involves methods of using information from a sample to draw conclusions regarding the population
Census using measurements form entire populations
sampling drawing representative subsets for the population
observational study observations and measurements of the individuals are conducted in a way that doesnt change the response of the variable being measured
experiement a treatment is dilberately imposed on the individuals in order to observe a possible change in the response of the variable being measured
placebo fake ex. sugar pills
Placebo experiment Group A gets real drug, Group B gets fake drug, Group B's response to the placebo = that of Group A
Double Bling experiement neither individuals in the study nor the observers know which subjects are receiving actual treatment.
Simple Random Sampling every sample of size n has equal chance of being selected
NOT RANDOM SAMPLING asking for volunteers
Systematic sampling population is arranged in sequential order -- every nth person is chosen
Cluster Sampling pop. is divided into sections. Sections are randomly chosen and ALL data in each selected section is used ex. all test scores for schools York, Sumter, and Greenville are used
Convenience sampling using whatever data is readily available
Created by: uscmegan