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Mid-Term AP Euro

Importance of Worms Diet of Worms; Martian Luther v Catholic Church; Luther refused to recant, was excommunticated
Importance of Florence the capital of the Renaissance
Importance of Amsterdam (blank)
Importance of Vienna (blank)
Importance of Blenheim (blank)
Importance of Utrecht The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) settled the War of the Spanish Succession.
Importance of Aix-la-Chapelle Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) ended the War of Devolution between France and Spain.
Importance of Manchester (blank)
Importance of Waterloo the final battle for Napoleon
Importance of Guustavus Adolphus (blank)
Importance of Leonardo da Vinci genuis of the Renaissance
Importance of Magellan his crew sailed around the world in 1521
Importance of Martin Luther posted 95 theses, created protestent religon (Luthren)
Importance of Bishop Bossuet an advocate to the theory of political absolutism; he made the argument that government was divine and that kings received their power from God. Louis XIV
Importance of James I King of England and Scotland
Importance of Rousseau important work is "The Social Contract" that describes the relationship of man with society
Importance of Copernicus founder of modern astronomy;
Importance of Voltaire (blank)
Importance of Thomas Malthus Essay on Population (1798)- implied that population always has a tendency to push above the food supply. any attempt to ameliorate the condition of the lower classes by increasing their incomes or improving agricultural productivity would be pointless
Mercantilism Sytem of political economy after feudalism based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.
laissez faire An economic doctrine that opposes governmental regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws.
heliocentric theory scientific theory of the sun in the center
secularism The view that religious considerations should be excluded from civil affairs or public education
politique someone who puts politics before religon
enlightened depotism (blank)
natural law laws from nature and that coincide with government laws
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Napoleons Battle cry, the ideal french government
Author of The Courtier Castiglone
Author of The Social Contract Rousseau
Author of The Prince Machiavelli
Author of The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith
Author of Against the Murderous and Thieving Peasants Martin Luther
Author of On the Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies Copernicus
Author of In Praise of Folly Erasmus
Author of Essay on Population Thomas Malthus
Author of Two Treaties on Civil Governemnt John Locke
Author of Leviathan Thomas Hobbes
Tennis Court Oath Louis XVI locked the Third Estate of the Estates-General out of their meeting hall, so they met in a nearby indoor tennis court. wrote a much needed constitution
Bill of Rights (blank)
95 Theses complaints on the corruptions of the Catholic Church by Martin Luther
Edict of Nantes Henry IV to grant French Protestants (Huguenots) substantial rights in a Catholic nation.
Long Parliament (blank)
Fronde (1648-1653), series of anti-royal, anti-absolutist, anti-taxation, anti-Mazarin rebellions instigated by Parlement de Paris, French nobility, spread to popular classes
Declaration of the Rights of Man (blank)
Concordat of 1801 Napoleon attempts to create an alliance with Pope Pius VII
Diplomatic Revolution (blank)
Continental System Napoleon attemps to cut off Britains supply by getting every other European country against Britain
Areas impacted by the Renaissance Italy and Northern Europe, but only 10% of the population
Impacted areas of the Protestant Reformation (blank)
Babylonian Captivity When the Catholic church moved the pope to Avignon; caused the great schism
Views of Martian Luther salvation by faith alone, bible is ultimate authority, grace of god brings absolution, 7 sacraments not needed, clergy not superior to laity, only lords supper and baptism are necessary, church is subordinate to state
The Schmalkaldic League formed in fear of Charles V
Peasant’s War first modern peasant uprising; they revolt "in the name of Luther"; Luther says "crush them"
Peace of Augsburg allowed the ruler of the land to choose between Lutherism and Catholicism
"Cuis regio, eius religio" "whose religion, their religion" subjects must accept their ruler’s religion
Calvinism began with Zwingli, disagreed with the concept of Transubstiation; known as the Protestant Rome
John Calvin same as Luther, except for the role of the state in church affairs; wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion
Views of Calvin Predestination and church needs a role in gov.
predestination man is predestined to go to heaven or hell
John Knox spread Calvinism to Scotland; Presbyterianism
Huguenots French Calvinists
Henry VIII broke away from Catholic church to divorce Catharine of Aragon- created the Anglican church
Act of Supremacy Henry VIII is head of church, not pope. he takes away monastery lands and executes Thomas More
Edward I Protestant heir of Henry VIII
Mary I Brings Inquisition to England- "Bloody Mary"
Elizabeth I practiced Politique- Religious toleration
39 articles broad and ambiguous religious topics which both Protestants and Catholic could believe in
Anglican Church founded by Elizabeth I
High Commission "Anglican Inquisition" in belief, but not practice
Elizabethan Age When Elizabeth ruled; Shakespeare wrote plays in this age
Index of Prohibited Books pope instituted forbidden reading material in order to stop protestants
Council of Trent agreed that no concessions will be made to the Protestants
Catholic Counter-Reformation Catholic doctrine remained the same, ended nepotism and indulgences
Pope Paul III pope during counter crusade
Ignatius Loyola founder of the Jesuits
Jesuits society of Jesus. Strict, militant counter reformers
Gutenberg printing press
Ignatius Loyola solider of the church, a militant crusader for the pope; established the Society of Jesus; wrote Spiritual Exercises
Indulgence selling forgiveness by Pope Leo X
Inquisition A tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy.
Faith belief in Jesus
Works do good things to get into heaven
anabaptists viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer’s conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life
Mennonites A member of an Anabaptist church characterized particularly by simplicity of life, pacifism, and nonresistance
Humanism A cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized secular concerns as a result of the rediscovery and study of the literature, art, and civilization of ancient Greece and Rome
Erasmus believed the pope should come second to the bible
Philip II king at height of Spanish power
Spanish decline revolts in Netherlands (1566); defeat of Armada (1588)
Fall from dominance "was the original achievement no more than an illusion?"
Escorial Philip II palace/monastary
"one monarch, one empire, one sword" Philip II’s dream
Drove himself hard; drove sick-son to death
Price increase in food (5-6x’s; 1500-1650)
Taxes Spanish and french nobles exempt; burden falls more on peasants
Bankruptcy 1599-1648 Spain declared 3 times, France 2
Peace of Westphalia end of Netherlands revolt
William of Orange leader for the Dutch, "The Silent"
Prince of Parma, Prince of Alva, and Don Juan Spanish generals
Giovanni de Medici Founders of Florence first modern man
Valla discovered the Donation of Constantine
Raphael "School of Athens"
Donatello "Bronze David"
Brunelleschi Dome in Florence
Michelangelo Sistine Chapel- "Creation of Adam" and Marble staute of David
Perugeno "The Delivery of the Keys"
Tition "Ages of Man"
Rembrant "Night Watch"
Da Vinci "Last Supper"
Fresco Painting on wet plaster
Linear Perspective Art style develpoed by Giotto
Chiaroscuro use of light to portray emotion
Botticelli Birth of Venus
Durer Famous for wood carvings
Van Dyck Dutch artist
3 Church Abuses Simony, Nepotism, Pluralism
Simony buying and selling of church property
Nepotism appointing family members to position of power
Pluralism holding more than one office at a time
Wycliff believed the church was corrupt and comes up with first ideas of reformation
Jan Hus a Czech who believed the church should reform
Council of Constance ends the Great Schism and Babylonian Captivity. Charles V takes control. Huss burnt at stake
The Great Schism moral decline of the Renaissance popes made people question papal infallibility
John Tetzel seller of indulgences for Pope Leo X
Martian Luther 95 theses about Catholic corruptions, Protestant branch
Council of Troubles attempted to end Calvinism in the Netherlands
Northern part of the Netherlands 7 provinces- United provinces
Why did Spain need the Netherlands? it was the wealthiest part of the Spanish territory, they bought Spanish wool, and they were at a prime spot to attack England
James I (1603-1625) -- supported absolute divine-right. wrote True Law of Free Monarchy and translated the bible into the KJV. "the wisest fool in Christendom" wanted a pure Anglican government
Charles I claimed divine right and the Theory of Absolutism. Parl made him sign the Petition of Rights.
Hobbes pro-absolutism; anti-"divine-right" Wrote The Leviathan
Locke rejected absolute governments. basic human rights that no government can take away: life, liberty, and property. the right of the citizen to rebel against a government that violated these basic human rights
Oliver Cromwell leader of roundheads, creates New Model Army and Puritan Army (very modern) he wins, then dissolves Parliament; declares himself "Lord Protector of England"
Restoration 1660 Parl asks Charles to be king
Glorious Revolution "Bloodless Revolution"
Puritan extreme Calvinist;
Presbyterian Scottish Calvinist
Anglican moderate Protestant
James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, uniting Scotland and England under one crown
"The True Law of Free Monarchy" written by James I saying that a free monarchy is one without having to deal with parliaments
"tunnage and poundage" rights given to the king by Parl
Archbishop Laud suporter of Charles I, believed in divine right, intolerant of persperterians and puritins, wanted to get them out of the land, as did Charles I, sent to supress the prespetierians in Scotland
ship money tax coastal part of England taxed;
Long Parliament when confronted with more financial problems, Charles I called the Parl together again, and they passed laws and Earl of Strafford executed (walker guy in movie)
Solemn League and Covenant Presbyterian established religion in England, Scotland, and Ireland
Roundheads Puritan Army
Levellers want election for all males (and some females)- they were too radical
Diggers a group of people who continued to ocupy and culvinate the farmland
Fifth Monarchy Men group of people who felt end of world was at hand, 3 empiers of assyria, Persia, Alexander, and Caesar.
Charles II (1660-1685)Stuart Restoration he learned the lessons of his predecessors (Don’t mess with Parliament!) religious toleration, but leaned toward the Catholics. Test Act (1673).
Dissenters puritins who refused to acsept the restored Church of England
Treaty of Dover secret treaty Charles II made with Louis XIV in his war against the Dutch, and Louis pay Chales for each year he helps, in hopes that he will rejoin the catholic church
Declaration of indulgence catholics and non-Anglicans are free to worship and hold office
Test Act 1673- no catholich could hole high office
Whigs people who support the Test Act (wanted Monmouth or Mary as monarch)
Scottish philosopher Hume
Intellectual revolution Enlightenment
Clockmaker theory Diesm
Perhaps greatest French philosophe Voltaire
Promoting human welfare and social reform Humanitarianism
Catherine the Great; Frederick the Great Enlightened Despots
"Power checks power" Montesquiue
Voltaire wrote? Candide
Montesquieu wrote? The Spirit of Laws
Wrote Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds Fontenelle
Wrote Historical and Critical Dictionary Bayle
Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke
Montesquieu's social satire (1721) The Persian Letters
Wrote System of Nature d'Holbach
German philosopher Kant
Locke's blank slate theory “Tabula-Rasa”, stated that the human mind was essentially a blank tablet, and that their identity is defined entirely by events after birth.
Diderot and d'Alembert edited Encyclopedia
Aristelian world-view Geocentric
Polish astronomer with heliocentric theory Copernicus
Italian scientist - formulated law of Inertia Galileo
English scientist formulated the laws of gravity Newton
English politician formulated empirical method Bacon
Danish astronomer (1561-1601) Brahe
Wrote Discourse on Methods Descartes
Center for scientific activity Gresham
Established by Charles II to help science The Royal Society of London
Blood circulates through the human body Harvey
Brahe's assistant formulated 3 laws of motion Kepler
Descartes idea that the world consists of two fundamental entities Dualism
Newton wrote? Principia Mathematica
Proceed from the particular to the general; from the concrete to the abstract Inductive method
Start at the general and then get specific Deductive Method
Descartes wrote? Discourse on Method
Cogito ergo sum I think therefore i am
Second century Greek scientist Ptolemy
Ptolemy wrote? Almagest
Conflict over rival claims to the Habsburg throne (blank)
Prussian landed aristocracy (blank)
German royal family Hohenzollern
The "Great Elector" Fredrick William
Sovereignty embodied in the ruler (blank)
Civil war in France during the reign of Louis XIII Fronde
Louis XIV's Controller of Finance Colbert
Established absolutism for Louis XIII (blank)
Louis XIV the "Sun King"
Government economic policies for the regulation of the state (blank)
Writer who analyzed the power of love Racine
Created Versailles Louis XIV
Limitation of government by law (blank)
Art and literature advanced under Louis XIV French Classicism
Lord Protector of England Cromwell
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II (blank)
Marked the end of French expansionst policy (blank)
Belief that a monarch's power is derived from God Divine Right
Radical groups in England who called for the abolition of private property (blank)
Declared sovereignty resides with Parliament (blank)
First Stuart monarch James I
Prohibited Catholics from holding political office (blank)
Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution (blank)
Romanov czar who westernized Russia Peter the Great
Swedish Lutheran leader in the Thirty Years' War (blank)
Spanish soldier sent to pacify the Low Countries (blank)
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean (1513) (blank)
French gains the right to appoint bishops (blank)
Defeated the Aztecs (blank)
Throwing Catholics from a castle window (blank)
First European to reach the southern tip of Africa (blank)
Granted Huguenots the right to public worship (1598) (blank)
First Tudor monarch (1485) (blank)
Last Tudor monarch (1603) (blank)
"Paris is worth a Mass" (blank)
Ended the Thirty Years' War (blank)
Ordered the Armada against England (blank)
Conqueror of Incas (blank)
Catholic attack on Calvinists (blank)
Leader of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands (blank)
First to circumnavigate the globe Magellen
Established a school for sailors at Sagres (blank)
Line of Demarcation (blank)
Italian who explored the North coast of America (blank)
Water route to Asia through Canada (blank)
Recognized independence of German princes Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Expelling the Jews and Moors from Spain (blank)
'Universal Monarch' Charles V
Returned England to the papacy (blank)
Sensous art indicative of the Counter Reformation (blank)
Pious laypeople of Holland who initiated a religious revival (blank)
"Universal Monarch" Charles V
French theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva john calvin
Calvinist leader in Scotland John Knox
Chancellor of England; wrote Utopia; beheaded by Henry VIII Thomas More
Recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion (blank)
Selling of church offices Simony
Holding more than one church office Pluralism
Where the state is subordinate to the church (blank)
Lending money for interest usuary
Society of Jesus; resisted Protestantism Jesuits
Papal pardon for sins Indulgences
A list of prohibited books The Index
Wrote the 95 Thesis Martin Luther
Tried to reform the abuses of the Catholic Church Council of Trent
Declared the king supreme head of the Church of England Act of Supermacy (1534)
Bread and wine undergo a spiritual change Consubstantiation
Granted Huguenots religious freedom Edict of Nantes
Expelling a person from the church Excommunication
French Calvinists Huguenots
Founded the Society of Jesus Ignatius Loyola
Leading seller of indulgences Johann Tetzel
Order of nuns dedicated to teaching young girls Ursuline
Religion of Scandinavia (blank)
Henry VIII's second wife Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII's first wife Catherine of Aragon
Required the Clergy to submit to the king of England (blank)
Declared the king supreme sovereign of England (blank)
Radical religious leader in Zurich (blank)
1450- knowledge of the world came from? church
how was knowledge/information given to court orally
how was knowledge/information passed around society/villages the elderly
how were books recorded written by hand usually in monastary
what was the effect of the Black Death the ones who survived recived an economic increase due to labor shortages
what was the effect of towns roads were built, trade went up, paper was manufactured
How did the first printing press work? make small blocks with backwards letters, arrange them in sentences and cover it with ink then paper.
who were the printing presses sold to? churches (monks were the only ones who could read)
Luther's first "nationalism" a bible in a language the masses could understand
printing caused what major event? the renaissance
Created by: sng4fd