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Endocrine Sys.

Chapter 13 Endocrine System

Steroid is any one of a large number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands. It is artificially produced as medication. It relieve swelling and inflammation; such as asthma
anabolic steroids are chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone. they have been used illegally by athletes severe side effects
leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)it controls the balance of food intake and energy expenditure
neurohormones are secreted by specialized cells of the brain. produced in the brain, they are able to affect cells throughout distant parts of the body
endocrionpathy is a disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system
hypercrinism is a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland,especially and endocrine gland
hypocrinism is a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland. especially and endocrine gland
pituitary gland which is composed of anterior and posterior lobes, hangs from the infundibulum below the hypothalamus which is a part of the brain.infundibulum is a stalk like structure
primary function of the pituitary gland is to secrete hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands. The pituitary acts in response to stimuli from the hypothalamus. creates a system of checks and balances to maintain an appropriate blood levels of each hormone
adrenocortictropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortes to secrete cortisol.
follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs) in the ovaries of the female; in males it stimulates the production of sperm
growth hormone known as somatotropic hormone regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
interstitial cell stimulating hormones (ICSH) stimulates ovulation in the female; in males it stimulates the secretion of testosterone
lactogenic hormone known as prolactin; stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk in the mother after childbirth.
luteinizing hormone stimulates ovulation in the female and production of the female sex hormone progesterone; in male it stimulates the secrtion of testosterone
melanocyte-stimulating hormone increasing the production of melanin in melancytes thereby causing darkening the pigmentation of the skin
thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates the growth and secretions of the thyroid gland
antidiuretic hormone maintains the water balance within the body by promoting the reabsorption of water through the kidneys. when more antidiuretic hormone is secreted less urine is produced.
oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction during childbirth.
acromegaly is abnormal enlargement of extremities ( hands and feet) caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
gigantism is abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty
hyperpituitarism is pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
hypopituitarism is a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial or complete loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary
pituitarism is any disorder of pituitary function
pituitary adenoma known as a pituitary tumor; is a slow growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland
prolactinoma known as a prolactin-producing adenoma, benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin; females causes infertility and changes menstruation; males it causes impotence
diabetes insipidus is caused by insufficient production of the antiduiuretic hormone; or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
pineal gland is a very small endocrine gland that is located in the central portion of the brain. also known as the pineal body influences the sleep wakefulness cycle;
pineal gland /secretes melatonin which influences the sloop and wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle - which refers to the biological functions that occur within a 24 hour period
thyroid gland is butterfly shaped and lies on either side of the larynx just below the thyroid cartilage. function of the thyroid gland is to regulate the body's metabolism. thyroid secretions also influence growth and the functioning of the nervous system
two primary thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine; the rate of metabolism is influenced by these hormones.
calcitonin regulates the calcium levels in the blood tissues
hashimoto's thyroiditis known as chronic lymphocytic thyroditis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
cretinism is a congenital from of hypothyroidism; treatment must start soon after birth or it can cause arrested physical and mental development
myxederma known as adult hypothyroidism; caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; symptoms; swelling, around eyes, cheeks; fatigue and subnormal temperature
thyroid storm known as thyrotoxic crisis; life threatening caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism; cause fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath tremors, sweats, disorientation and fatigue
graves disease autoimune disorder caused by hyperthyroidism
Goiter known as thyromegaly is an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland; produces swelling in the front of neck, it occurs when the thyroid gland is not able to produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of eye ball out of orbit
thyroid stimulating hormone assay diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood levels.
parathyroid glands each of which is about the size of a grain of rice, they are embedded in the posterior sureface of the thyroid gland
parathyroid functions is to regulate calcium levels throughout the body; calcium levels are important to the smooth functioning of the muscular and nervous systems
calcitonin and parathyroid work together they regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues; parathyroid hormone increases calcium from storage in the bones and teeth; calcitonin moves calcium into the bones and teeth for storage
thymus located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity
functions of thymus functions as part of the endocrine system by secreting a hormone that functions as part of the immune system
thymosin stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system; these are important in coordination immune difenses
pancreas feather shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems
pancreatic islets parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions; glucose: known as blood sugar, form of energy used by the body glycogen: is the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose
secretions of the pancreatic islets Glucagon; is the hormone secreted by alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to low blood sugar levels, it stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose for release into the blood stream. Insulin: is hormone secreted by beta cells
continued in response to high blood sugar levels, functions in two ways insulin allows glucose to enter the cells for use as energy, when additional glucose is not needed insulin stimulates the liver to convert glucose into glycogen for storage
type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells symptoms weight loss, blurred vision extreme fatigue and slow healing can be treated with diet and exercise and insulin therapy
type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance disorder; body is producing insulin but does not use if effectively; which makes the body secret more insulin; common among obesity in children and young adults. diet and exercise can have no symptoms for years
gestational diabetes occurs during some pregnancies; disappears after pregnancies
diagnostic testing for diabetes mellitus fasting blood sugar: measures glucose
insulin shock is caused by very low blood sugar, oral glucose is administered quickly to rapidly raise the blood sugar level
diabetic coma is caused by high blood sugar; known as diabetic ketoacidosis; prompt administration of insulin is required
diabetic retinopathy damage to the tiny blood vessels in the retina causing blood to leak into the posterior of the eyeball;loss of vision
other diabetic complications heart disease: excess blood sugar makes the walls of the blood vessels sticky and rigid, this encourages hypertension and atherosclerosis Kidney disease: can lead to renal failure damage to the blood vessels reduces blood flow to kidneys
Continued peripheral neuropathy: is damage to the nerves affecting the hands and feet
adrenal glands known as the suprarenals; located with one on top of each kidney;they have an outer portion known as adrenal cortex; middle portion is adrenal medulla and the entire gland is surrounded by an adrenal capsule
functions of adrenal glands electrolytes: are mineral substances such as sodium, potassium that are normally found in the blood. It also helps to regulate metabolism and interacting with the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress
Secretions of the Adrenal cortex corticosteroids; steroid hormone. its equivalent is synthetically produced and administered as medications
aldosterone regulates the salt and water levels inthe body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
androgens hormones that influence sex related characteristics
cortisol known as hydrocortisone has an anti-inflammatory action and it regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body.
secretions of the adrenal medulla epinephrine: known as adrenaline, stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or other stimuli. makes the heart beat faster can raise blood pressure. it also helps the liver release glucose and limits the release of insulin
Continued Norepinephrine: is both a hormone and a neurohormone ; it plays a role in the fight or flight response by raising blood pressure strengthening the heartbeat and stimulation muscle contractions
addisons disease occurs when the adrenal gland does not produce enough of the hormones cortiso or aldosterone, characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness. loss of appetite and weight loss
aldosteronism is an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion o aldosterone
conn's syndrome is a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone
pheochromocytoma is a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla it causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine
cushing's syndrome known as hypercortisolism is caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol the symptoms include a rounded or moon face
gonads are ovaries in the female and testicles in males, are gamete producing glands
gamete is a reproductive cell: male sperm and female eggs
gonadotropin is a hormone that stimulates the gonads
functions of gonads gonads secrete the hormones that are responsible for the development and maintenance of the secondary sex characteristics that develop during puberty
puberty is the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually; marked by maturing of the genital organs;second is by the first menstruation in the female average age is 12 yr in females and 14 in males
precocious puberty is the early onset of the changes of puberty; before the age of 9 in females and before 10 in males
secretions of testicles which is secreted by the testicles and stimulates the development of males secondary sex characteristics
virile means having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male
estrogen is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle
progesterone is the hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary; it's function is to complete the preparations for pregnancy
Created by: cameronslc